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Grammar compilation (Genki, bunpro ...) with examples

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The deck is a grammar compilation. For each grammar point, you will see explanation, examples and links from different ressources. Preview Screenshots *CONTENT* - Introduction to give an overwiew of the language. - The Font Card has 3 sentences on the front to illustrate the grammar point (which is bold and colorized). - Each sentence has an english translation in front as a hint (if you have the addon). - The Back Card has various information. - The grammar's structure. - Short description, explanation. - A Recap tab to understand how this grammar point relates to others. - A Reference tab for all sources used, with hyperlinks, or lesson/chapter title. - One tab per source so you can read directly. - A Native examples tab so you can see the grammar in context, with examples from anime or games. - A Table of content to have an overview of how the lessons are structures. - A List of lessons with a search button so you have easy access to all lessons. *HOW TO USE* - The deck has native examples with audio. Make sure to turn off the "Automatically play audio" button. - The deck is made to recognize a grammar point with sentences on the back, and explanations on the back. - The grammar is ordered in a logical sense so that you only see one new grammar point at a time. They are also regrouped thematically (interdiction, order, comparison ...). - Sentences are usually taken from textbooks and chosen because there's only grammar that you've seen before (with exceptions). - The point is not to memorize vocabulary so I try to pick sentences with common vocabulary. - Deck works on phones and ankiweb too. *HISTORY* V4 - 23/07/2020 Pictures - Some native examples added - Table of content tab added - All lessons tab added - All lessons from NHK Easy Japanese added - Lessons from Japanese Pod 101 N5 added - All examples revised with furigana, grammar point in bold. V3 - 14/05/2020 Pictures - Template completely revised. - Sentences added or changed. - Genki 1 finished, chapter 7 to 12. - Existing lessons revised. New ones added. - Introduction revised. V2 - 03/02/2020 - GENKI 1, chapter 1 to 6 revised - Template revised V1 - 27/11/2019 Pictures - Release *OTHER DECKS* - Study : Kanji, Grammar, Vocabulary - Reading: Manga (Yotsuba), Games (Pokemon, Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest) - Listening : Anime, Pimsleur I've compiled all my resources in a SPREADHSEET. You can find hundreds of anime, manga, games ordered by difficulty, direct links to their anki decks; links to video-game japanese scripts and various link to ressources for studying. Buy me a coffee

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ID 140
Chronology 137
Chapter Particles
Lesson で - Location of action - At, in
Content で is used to indicate the location of an action.It can be translated with : at, in, on.When you use an object to perform an action, で indicates what you are using.で indicates that someone is doing something in a specific place.
Structure Place + で
Recap
Expression1 そこで 何[なに]をしますか。
Exemple1-en What will you do there (at that location).
Expression2 私[わたし]は 図書館[としょかん]で 本[ほん]を 読[よ]みます。
Exemple2-en (I will) read books at the library.
Expression3 図書館[としょかん]で 日本語[にほんご]を 勉強[べんきょう]します。
Exemple3-en I study Japanese at the library.
TabsBunpro でat・inPlace + で[The particle で denotes the location where the action is taking place][に denotes the location where a noun exists or the destination of an action]
TabsDictionary で (1)A particle which indicates location, except for location of existence.At; in; on【Related Expression: に4; に6; を2】(ks). 私達は喫茶店でコーヒーを飲んだ・飲みました。We drank coffee at a coffee shop.(a). ゆり子はデパートで働いています。Yuriko is working at a department store.(b). オーストラリアでは十二月は夏だ。In Australia it is summer in December.(c). 島崎さんは日本では元気でした。Mr. Shimazaki was healthy in Japan.(d). ヘレンは始めて舞台で歌った。Helen sang on the stage for the first time.で1 cannot be used to indicate location of existence. (⇨ に6) However, if the existential verb ある '(inanimate things) exist' occurs with an event, で is used, as in (1). (1) a. 今晚ジムの家で/*にパーティーがあります。 There's a party at Jim's tonight. b. きのうこの部屋で/*にプライス先生の講演があった。 We had Prof. Price's lecture in this room yesterday.
TabsGenki
TabsImabi
TabsNHK15
References Bunpro: でDictionary of Basic japanese grammar Page 105 で (1)Genki I: Lesson 03-3-ParticlesJPOD101: Lesson 83
Examples
TabsTableofContent Basic Sentence Is - Copula だ   Is (polite) - Copula です   Topic - Particle は   Is not - じゃない   Is not (polite) - ではありません   Ask questions - Particle か Adjectives い Adjectives   な Adjectives Conjugation - Copulas Past - だった   Past (polite) - でした   Past negative - じゃなかった   Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした Demonstratives Kosoado This - これ   That - それ   That over there - あれ   This - この   That - その   That over there - あの   Here - ここ   There - そこ   Over there - あそこ Conjugation - Present Stem form   Non Past - Postive Form   Non Past - Negative Form   Non Past - Polite form Particles は - Topic marker   か - Or   を- Object of action   へ - Direction - To; toward.   に - Direction - To; toward.   に - Location - In; at; on   に - Target   に - Frequency   に - Time   で - Range   で - Means - By, with   で - Location of action - At, in   で - Amount   も - Also, too, as well   も - Even, as many   の - Possessive   の - Relative locations   が - Subject marker   が - Subject marker - Describing   が - But, however   と - With   と - And   や - And … (making list) Interogative pronouns Which - どれ   Which - どの   Where - どこ   Who - だれ Ending particles Right - ね   だろう   でしょう   よ   わ Verbs To do - する   There is - ある (inanimate)   There is - いる (animate)   Transitive and intransitive verbs Conjugation - Past Past - Positive Form   Past - Negative Form   Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation   な-Adjectives conjugation   Adjective exeption, Good - いい か and も suffix Something - 何か   Anything - 何も   Someone - 誰か    Anyone - 誰も   Sometime - いつか   Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか   Nowhere - どこも Adverbs Adjectives into adverbs Frequency Adverbs Often - よく   Sometimes - 時々   Not at all - 全然   Not much - あまり ない Adverbs of quantity A lot - たくさん   Approximately - くらい Counters Counters - 助数詞   Counting people Te form Te form - Conjugation   Te form - Adjectives Conjugation    V-ing - ている   てある - has been done Connecting Sentences Te form - Connecting verbs   Te form - Connecting sentences Request Please do - てください   Please don t - ないでください Permissison Give permission - てもいい   Ask permission - てもいいですか   Interdiction - てはいけない Conjugation - Volitional Volitionnal Suggestion Let s, Shall - ましょう   Let me do - ましょうか   Why don t you - ませんか   I want to [V] - たい   I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている   Someone wants to [V] - たがる   Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました Reason / purpose Because, since - から   The explanatory - ん / の   Causal relationship - で   Because, since - ので Time Duration - 時間   To go ... - に行く   When, at the time - 時   About - ごろ   From - から   Before, ago - 前に   After doing -てから   Until, to, by - まで   By the time - までに   Still - まだ   Yet - まだ ていない Nominalizer Nominalizer - こと   Verb Nominalizer - のが Like To like - 好き   To like doing - のが好き   To dislike - きらい Comparison More than, less than - より...のほう   Between … which one - と...と、 どちら   The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ Modifying nouns Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers   Modifying Nouns - Relative clause Using の Adjective + の - one   Pronoun one - の To give and receive To give - あげる   To receive - くれる   Good at doing - 上手   Bad at doing - 下手   Knowledgeable - 詳しい Planning to do つもり Conjugation - Potential Potential form Able / Not able Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) Experience Past experience - たことがある Reporting I think - と思う。   Said that - と言っていました   Looks like - そう   Do things like - たり~たりする   To decide on - にする   To become - なる Guess Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません   It’d be better to - ほうがいい   It’d be better not to - ほうがいい   You must - なければいけない   Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ Conditionals たら   と   てしまいました Sugimasu Too much - すぎる Conjugation - Imperative Imperative form   Don t - な
TabsAllLessons Lesson Content Is - Copula だ だ is a copula. It's not the verb "to be" but it can be translated as "is". It is used to declare what one believes to be a fact. だ can be omitted, but it's very casual. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is (polite) - Copula です です is a copula. It indicates politeness and always goes at the end of a sentence. In english both だ and です can be translated by the verb "To be", which leads to confusion. です is used in polite sentences and can be seen as the polite form of だ, but it's not. They are not the same. They are used differently grammaticaly. Because です indicates politeness, you can use it after い-Adjectives whithout redundancy. You can't with だ. Topic - Particle は は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. "A は B だ" is the most basic sentence structure. It means A is B. は is pronounced わ. The prononciation changed over the years but the spelling as は stayed. Is not - じゃない To turn a positive sentence into a negative one, you can replace the copula だ by じゃない. "A は B じゃない" means A is not B. The full form is : ではない, but では can be abbreviated to じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness : ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is not (polite) - ではありません You can replace the copula です by ではありません to make the sentence negative. では can be abbreviated by じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness. From polite to casual:  ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです Ask questions - Particle か Add か at the end of a declarative sentence to turn it into a question. Unlike English, word order does not change in Japanese when changing a sentence into a question. The sentence has to go up in pitch (upward intonation) to indicate a question. か is like an oral "?". か is usually used with a period : か。 For casual questions, か can be replaced by the other particle の or just omitted. い Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. い-Adjectives are called that way because they always end in い. い-Adjectives behave like verbs and can be conjugated. Therefore, they can be placed at the end of a sentence. You don't need to add a verb or a copula to make a correct sentence. Because い-Adjectives already behave like verbs, you cannot add だ or one of his conjugation after it. It would be redundant. You conjugate the い-Adjective directly. However, you can add です for politeness. な Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. They are called な-Adjectives beacuse you attach な to the adjective before a noun. Few な-Adjectives can also end in い (like 綺麗 : きれい, pretty), but い-Adjectives all end in い. Conjugating な-Adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. That's why you can place the copula だ after a な-Adjectives. Past - だった You can conjugate the copula だ. The positive past form is: だった. It can be translated as "was" or "were". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past (polite) - でした You can conjugate the copula です. The positive past form is: でした. It can be translated as "was" or "were". Past negative - じゃなかった You can conjugate the copula だ. The negative past form: ではなかった or じゃなかった. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした You can conjugate the copula です. The negative past form: ではありませんでした. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". This - これ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - それ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あれ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). This - この When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - その When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あの When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). Here - ここ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. There - そこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Over there - あそこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Stem form There are る-verbs (Ichidan - group 1) and う-verbs (Godan - group 2). The last hiragana of the verb indicates the group. る verbs always end in る. う verbs end in various hiragana, and sometimes end in る as well. The verb without the last hiragana is called the "stem form". It's upon that stem form that all conjugations are built. Verbs are by default presented in what is called the Dictionary or plain-form. It's called that way because that's how you will find a verb in a Dictionary. Non Past - Postive Form The present tense is used to describe something habitual or frequent. It can also represent something you'll be doing in the future. Because it can describe actions for both present and future, it is sometime called "non past form" as it's more accurate than just present. Non Past - Negative Form Ichidan : take off る and add ない (casual). Godan : replace the last う sound with the matching あ sound. Add ない. Godan : for verbs that end in う, it becomes わ rather than あ. Non Past - Polite form All polite verbs end with ます. It's the more polite version of the Dictionary / plain form. Most textbooks will introduce the polite form has the conjugation "by default". It's because you're expected to speak in formal way before a casual way. However remember that the polite form is a conjugation form. は - Topic marker は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. But by omitting the rest of sentence, は can be used to ask question. か - Or A particle which marks an alternative, a choice between two things (or more) like “or.” を- Object of action を is used to show the direct object of a sentence. Direct objects receive the action of the verb. を is pronounced like お. へ - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Location - In; at; on The particle に denotes the location where someone or something exists. に - Target に indicate targets (indirect objects). This is mostly used when you give or do something for someone. に - Frequency に follows the frequency of events over a period of time. Used as "per". に - Time に follows the specific time you want to talk about, whether it's a date or an hour. Some time-expressions do not need に, like "today" or "tomorrow". You also don't need に when you are describing regular intervals, like "every week". で - Range で can express ranges. In time or space. There is a case that you don’t use the particle で even if you express a period of time. If you express actions which take place for a while,  the particle で is not generally used. When you use the particle で, it indicates that you will complete actions. Here are the comparisons : 1時間宿題をします。 [I will] do my homework for an hour. 1時間で宿題をします。 [I will] complete my homework within an hour. で - Means - By, with で specifies the context in which the action is performed, the means, method or instruments. で follows the tool that you are using. The "tool" doesn't have to be a physical object. It can be translated with : by, with, in, by means of … で - Location of action - At, in で is used to indicate the location of an action. It can be translated with : at, in, on. When you use an object to perform an action, で indicates what you are using. で indicates that someone is doing something in a specific place. で - Amount で can express amount. In this context, で can be placed after any word which indicates quantity. も - Also, too, as well も is a particle used to indicate that something that has previously been stated also holds true for the item currently under discussion. It corresponds with the English words "also" or "too", and replaces が, は or を when used. Other particles, such as に, may be used in combination with も. も - Even, as many も is a particle that can follow many types of words and phrases. It may be used to imply the existence of other similar items without specifically mentioning them, or for emphasis. の - Possessive の is a particle that connects two nouns. The second noun is the main idea, the first is more specific. Among many usage, の indicates possession. Example: X の Y Translation: X's Y or Y belongs to X. の - Relative locations Between two nouns, the first one indicates the nature or attribute of the second one with the help of の. This structure is used to describe locations. You use the particle の between a reference and the relative location. In english, it would be translated by "of", like "in front of", "left of"... Relative locations : 前 (in front) うしろ (behind) 中 (inside) が - Subject marker A particle which indicates the subject. が and は seem similar when translated in english. は focus on the subject / theme of the sentence. が focus on the subject, it identifies something or someone specific. が - Subject marker - Describing To describe people physical attributes, we use the particles は and が. が - But, however が can be used to make contrast. It can be translated by "but" or "however". と - With と is used when you want to say things are being done with someone. It comes after a noun to mean "with noun". と - And と can be translated by "and" when making an exhaustive list (2 or 3 items only), connecting nouns. It can also mean together with. や - And … (making list) や connects two nouns to make a non-exhaustive list. や is similar to と.  The difference is that や implies there are more items to the list. It is often used with など, which means "etc." Which - どれ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どれ means "which ?". Which - どの The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どの means "Which ?" and must be followed by a noun. は is not used with どの. We use が. Where - どこ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どこ means "where?" A common way to ask the location of X, is with this question: X はどこですか。  Who - だれ だれ means "Who?" Fomal form is どなた. Right - ね Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. ね is used when seeking confirmation or agreement, like "right ?" or "isn't it ?" だろう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. だろう is used at the end of a sentence to ask confirmation. だろう is more masculine or casual version of でしょう. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". だろう is the volitional form of the copula である. でしょう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. でしょう is used at the end of a sentence when you talk about a prediction, somehting uncertain, or to ask confirmation. It has an uncertain tone to it. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". The contracted form is でしょ. でしょう is the polite form of だろう. You can use でしょうか to ask another person's opinion or guess. よ よ indicates certainty or emphasis, like giving new information to the listener. わ わ is a sentence-ending particle that indicates a slightly emphatic tone. It's mainly used by a female speakers. わ precedes other sentence ending particles such as ね or よ. To do - する する can be translated as "to do" but in a broader sense than in english. You can make a noun into a verb by adding する to it. There is - ある (inanimate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). There is - いる (animate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). Transitive and intransitive verbs Some verbs in japanese exist like pairs. Transitive verb : an action is done, the verb has an object. We use the particle を. Intransitive verb : something happens, the verb doesnot have an object. We use the particle が. Past - Positive Form Ichidan Take off る and add た Godan Take off the last hiragana and replace it by ... く    →  いた ぐ    →  いだ す    →  した るうつ  → った む,ぶ,ぬ  → んだ Past - Negative Form Take the Non-Past Negative form of a verb. It ends in ない. Take off the い and replace it with かった. Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation Because い Adjectives behave like verbs, you can conjugate them. Behaving like verbs, they can end a sentence. To turn い-Adjectives into the negative form, you change the い to くない. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. な-Adjectives conjugation Conjugating な adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. Adjective exeption, Good - いい The い-Adjective いい (good) is an exeption. The word for “good” was originally 良い (よい). When it is written in Kanji, it is usually read as よい. All the conjugations are still derived from よい and not いい. The conjugation pattern is the same as the other い-Adjectives. You can add です to make it polite. The honorific polite form of いい and よい is よろしい. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Something - 何か 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Anything - 何も 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Someone - 誰か  誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Anyone - 誰も 誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Sometime - いつか いつ means when. いつか is some time. いつも is always. It can be a postive or negative sentence. Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか どこ means where. どこか means somewhere. どこも means anywhere or nowhere. The sentence must be negative. Nowhere - どこも   Adjectives into adverbs You can turn adjectives into adverbs. These adverbs are normally translated with "-ly" in english. For  い-Adjective, change the final い to く. For  な-Adjective, you add に. Often - よく You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Sometimes - 時々 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Not at all - 全然 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. 全然 (ぜんぜん) is an adverb that usually precedes verbs in their negative form (or adjectives with negative connotations, such as だめ) in order to express the nuance of "not at all" or "absolutely not". Although 全然 is usually used in this fashion, it may also be used together with verbs in affirmative form in informal speech, or adjectives with positive connotations. In this case, it expresses the nuance of "very or extremely". As with all adverbs in Japanese, the adverb precedes the verb/adjective it modifies. Not much - あまり ない The adverb あまり usually occurs in negative sentences, meaning 'not very (much)'. あまり litteraly means "too much". あんまり is a variant of あまり and usually used in conversation. In limited situations, あまり can be used in affirmative sentences, too. In this case, it means 'very; too' with a negative implication. あまり always precedes the verb. A lot - たくさん たくさん is used as an adverb modifying the amount or volume of something. いっぱい  also means a lot. The two can usually be used interchangeably. いっぱい sounds more a bit more colloquial than たくさん. Approximately - くらい くらい (or ぐらい) is an adverbial particle used to roughly indicate amount or extent. It is usually translated as "about" or "approximately". It always directly follows the amount/extent that it modifies. Counters - 助数詞 Japanese use different words when counting items. They are called counters. The counter is placed after the number. Here is a few counter exemples : People: 一人 (nin) *Special exceptions are made for one person (一人, "hitori") and two people (二人, "futari") (Small) objects: ー個 (ko) Long thin objects (inc. bottles): ー本 (hon) Thin, flat objects (inc. sheets of paper): ー枚 (mai) Drinking glasses: ー杯 (hai) Places: ー箇所 (kasho) Seconds: 一秒(byou) Minutes: 一分(fun) Hours: 一時間(jikan) Days: ー日 (nichi) Weeks: 週間 (shuukan) Months: ーヶ月 (kagetsu) Years: ー年間 (nenkan) Nights (spent overnight somewhere): ー泊 (haku) Rolls of things (inc. scrolls): ー巻 (kan) Pages: 一ページ (peeji) Books: 一冊(satsu) Letters: 一葉(you) Homes: 一戸(ko)、一軒(ken)、一棟(mune) Tatami mats: 一畳 (jou) Tsubo (3.31 square meter area): ー坪 (tsubo) Small animals (inc. most insects): 一匹 (hiki) Large animals (and some insects): 一頭 (tou) Birds (and rabbits): 一羽 (wa) Fish: ー尾 (bi) Chopsticks: 一膳 (zen) Plates: 一皿 (sara) Boats, ships: 一隻(seki) Cars, trucks, etc.: 一台(dai) Train cars: 一両(ryou)  Flowers: 一輪 (rin) Beats (of music): 一拍(haku) Stocks (e.g. on the stock market): 一株(kabu)  Counting people The counter for people is 人 (にん). One people and two people have irregular readings: 一人: ひとり 二人: ふたり Te form - Conjugation The て is a very versatile conjugation in japanese. It can be used for: - Making request - Connecting activities - Giving / asking permission - Interdictions Te form - Adjectives Conjugation  You can conjugate adjectives to the て form. If you want to use two adjectives, you need to change the first one to the て-Form. い-Adjectives: change the い to くて な-Adjectives: add で V-ing - ている The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb. When ~ていた, the past tense of ている, is used, it expresses an action that was progressing at certain time in the past or someone or something was keeping the action in the same state for a period of time in the past, and now that action is no longer in that state. てある - has been done てある is used when something has been done and we are now looking at the results. てある can only be used with transitive verbs. It's the て form of a verb and ある or あります added. Te form - Connecting verbs We can use the て form to connect two activities in one sentence. You can express a string of action that happens one after another : "I did this and then I did that." The first verb of the sentence is in the て form, the tense of the second verb (or the last of the sentence) determines when these events take place. Two verbs cannot be joined by the particle と, which only connects nouns. Te form - Connecting sentences The same way you can connect two clauses with verbs, you can use the て form for adjectives. It's used like the word "and". Please do - てください To make a  request, use the て-form and add ください. ください can be translated as "please". ください is the imperative form of the verb くださる. It's a rather direct way to ask someone to do something, when you are in a position of authority. You can make a request more polite by using 〜てもらえませんか or 〜ていただけませんか. Usually it's written in kana, but the kanji for ください is 下さい. Please don t - ないでください To request that someone refrain from doing something, use the negative short form of a verb and でください. Give permission - てもいい To give permission to someone to do something, you can use てもいい after the verb. It means that doing [verb] is okay. You can add です after いい to be more polite. In casual speech, you can drop the も. Ask permission - てもいいですか てもいいですか is a simple and casual way to ask permission to do something. In casual from, you can drop も and just use ていい with a rising intonation to indicate a question. Interdiction - てはいけない This form can be used as a strong way of saying something is prohibited. This phrase is referring to the acceptability of the action and not the possibility of the the action being executed. This is used when someone is talking about set rules and regulations. You can think of it as "must not" and "not allowed". いけない is a more casual form of いけません. てはならない also expresses prohibition and is a little stronger than はいけない. In a conversation, ては is sometimes shortened to ちゃ. So, you can say ~ちゃいけません in a daily conversation to tell the listener not to do something. Also, as a casual variation, there is てはだめだ. Volitionnal The volitionnal form is a less formal, more casual equivalent of ましょう. It expresses the will of the speaker. It's also used to suggest something or push someone to do something with you. Let s, Shall - ましょう ましょう is used to suggest something, as an invitation. It can be translated by "let's". It's used to suggest a plan of action. It's the volitional form of ます, or the polite volitional form. Let me do - ましょうか ましょうか is used as an indirect, roundabout way of expressing one's intentions, or making an invitation. Why don t you - ませんか ませんか is used to ask someone if they would like to do something. It implies that it's ok if someone does not want to do the action. It's a suggestion rather than an invitation. The negative form makes the suggestion a bit softer. Without the negative form, the sentence is simply a question instead of being an invitation. The short form of a verb (ない) without か can be used intead of ません to be more casual. I want to [V] - たい たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". It only applies for thing YOU want to do. You cannot use it to speak about other people's intentions. The particle が can replace を when a verb is in the たい form. You can add です after たい to make it more polite. I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている When you have wanted to do something for some time, you can use たいと思っている. たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". 思う (おもう) means to think. ている conjugation is used when a past event is connected to the present. Someone wants to [V] - たがる To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you must use たがっている instead of たい. Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました You can use たいと言っていました to describe someby else desire to [V]. たい only applies to your own desires. Somebody else wishes are usually reported either as quotations, observations or guesses. と言っていました is used to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). Because, since - から から is a particle that connects two subjects to show a reason or cause. The first object is the reason or explanation and the second is the result or situation. You can inverse the two but から is awalys attached to the reason / explanation. The second object can be omitted. Noun and adjective require a copula (だ / です) so it doesn't get mixed up with から meaning "from". から becomes だから or ですから. The の before だから indicates that the speaker is emphasizing what he's saying. Usually a personal judgement. It can be shortened to ん. The explanatory - ん / の んだ or んです is used at the end of a sentence to ask or give a reason or an explanation. It's the shortened form of のです or のだ. Instead of just making a statement, you indicates a reason for something. のだ is used in writing and is more formal than んだ, used in speaking. You can replace  だ by です. It can go after a short form, negative or postive, past or present. When it follows a noun or a な-Adjective, な comes in between. Causal relationship - で で indicates a weak causal relationship between two conditions or events.  It directly follows noun phrases and な-adjectives, but cannot be used after い-adjectives, which have their own -te form. Because, since - ので ので is a conjunctive particle that expresses causes, reasons and motivations, similar to から. から can mark subjective or objective causes/reasons while ので marks objective ones, emphasis on the cause. ので is more formal than から. ので can also be shortened to んで in casual form. Duration - 時間 The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun like 一 時間. It doesn't need to be followed by a particle. To go ... - に行く When you talk about going somewhere to do something. The verb has to be in the stem form. Add に and conjugate 行く. Instead of 行く, you can also use 来る, or 帰り. When, at the time - 時 時 has different readings. Here, it's とき. とき marks a time when an action takes place. It can be translated as when. Subject 1 + とき + Subject 2. When subject 1 happen(ed), subject 2. If the ending of the sentence is in past tense, both events happened in the past. When something hasn't happened yet, or when it happens often, you can use a regular plain form verb before とき. About - ごろ   From - から から expresses a starting point. The source can be location, time … Before, ago - 前に 前 means before. It can be use for both location and time. We use 前 when an action took place before another one. The verb before 前 must be in non-past plain form. 前 means "in front" when talking about directions but here it means "before". When the year is mentionned, の is omitted. After doing -てから You can use から to say after doing [verb]. The verb has to be in the て-Form. The difference with 後 is that てから conveys  a stronger and immediatie relation between the two events. Until, to, by - まで まで refers to a span of time. It's the equivalent to the English expression "until." It can be a time, location … Often used with から to mean "from … to …" By the time - までに までに is a compound word composed of the particle まで and the particle に used to describe a dealine. The use of the に particle indicates that something will occur within the limit set by まで. までに is therefore similar to the English words "by," "before" and "within", with the appropriate translation depending on the context. Still - まだ まだ is an adverb used to indicate a lack of change. It is translated with one of two possible meanings: 1) When used in combination with verbs in positive form, まだ is usually translated as "still". 2) When used in combination with verbs in negative form, まだ is usually translated as "(not) yet". Yet - まだ ていない Expression used to say something has not happened yet. It combines まだ and a verb in the negative ている form. まだ means yet. The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb.At the end of the sentence, a negative verb in ている form. Nominalizer - こと こと is a nominalizer. A nominalizer is a pronoun that converts a verb phrase or an adjective into a noun phrase. You can only use this for the plain form of the verb. Verb Nominalizer - のが To change verbs into nouns, you add の to the short-Form, present or past of a verb. You can also use こと instead of の. To like - 好き In japanese, "To like" is an adjective and not a verb. You can think of it as "desirable". It usually works with が that indicates the object of the adjective. To like doing - のが好き Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". You can use it to talk about liking doing [verb]. To dislike - きらい You use 好き to say you like something or like doing something, 嫌い (きらい) works the same way to say "don't like". Although it ends with い, it's a な-adjective, just like 好き.  More than, less than - より...のほう より...のほう is used to compare two things to show that one is better than the other. In japanese, adjectives have the same shape in noncomparative and comparative sentences. There is no alteration as in "great/greater". The idea of comparison is expressed by adding something to the nouns that are compared. It's often used to describe the speaker's opinion about something. Usually with が好き or いい. They can be used with nouns or verbs. より means "rather than" and modifies the noun before it. You can think of it as a praticle attached to the element with the least value. You can omit either one if the context is understood. Between … which one - と...と、 どちら When you want to compare two things. Attach the particle と after each noun and add どちら. You are asking : "between noun 1 and 2, which …". どちら can be replaced by the more casual どっち. The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ When you compare three or more things, you express which one is the best with 一番 (いちばん) 一番 is used to say "the best", or "the most". Litteraly "number one". の中で~が一番~ indicates the best out of a list. のほう and どっち are not used in statements of comparison among three or more items. Normal questions like だれ, どれ, なに, いつ and どこ are used instead. Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers Adjectives and verbs can be used a qualifiers to a noun. Modifying Nouns - Relative clause The short form of a verb can qualify a noun, just like an adjective can. You can use that sentence as just one noun. A qualifying phrase like this, which has a sentence-like structure of its own, is technically known as a "relaative-clause". Adjective + の - one When a noun follows an adjective, and when it's clear what you are refering to, you can replace the noun with pronoun の, "one". You can use の to avoid repetition. Pronoun one - の When a noun follows another noun, it can be reduced to の. The second noun becomes omitted. To give - あげる When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. To receive - くれる If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. Good at doing - 上手 上手 (じょうず) is a な-Adjective that means skillful, or good at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is good at doing something (or just good at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective とくい instead of 上手. Bad at doing - 下手 下手 (へた) is a な-Adjective that means unskillful, or bad at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is bad at doing something (or just bad at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective 苦手 (にがて) instead of 下手. Knowledgeable - 詳しい 詳しい is an い-adjective meaning detailed, accurate or well-acquainted. You can use it with に to say someone knows a lot about something. つもり つもり follows verbs in the present tense short form to describe what a person is planning to do. つもり following a verb in the negative form decribes what you are not planning to do. Potential form The potential form られ(ます) has two meanings. - Someone's ability to do something. It can also express an inherent capability or possibility. It can be translated by "can do". - Permission to do something under a certain circumstance. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) ができる is used to describe your ability to do something. Like the verb "can", It also expresses the nuance that someone is good at something, especially when used together with adverbs such as よく. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Past experience - たことがある たことがあります is used to indicate a past experience of doing something. It can only be used to talk about things in the far past, not something recent. Therefore the verb is always in the past tense. We cannot use this expression when we have done something repeatedly. We cannot use いつも, たいてい or よく. I think - と思う。 You can use the expression と思う to talk about your own thoughts. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to think 思う (おもう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. To say that you don't think, it's more common to use ないと思います instead of と思いません。 Said that - と言っていました You can use the expression と言っていました to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. と言っていました indicates that you were there and heard the phrase (I heard him saying "..."). と言いました is more appropriate if you weren't there. Looks like - そう そう means "it looks like", "it appears". It's used to show a guess you have about something by looking at it. In case of い-Adjective, you take out the い and add そう. Use the conjucation before そう to tell the difference between "hearsay" or "it looks like". Do things like - たり~たりする To list two or three examples out of a number of actions, use たり~たりする. Contrary to the て-Form, たり implies you did more than the things listed and they weren't in that exact order. Add り after each past tense plain form verb you want to list, then add する or します. The helping verb する at the end of the sentence indicates the tense of the sentence. To decide on - にする This is a slight different meaning from Adjective + する. Here, it is used when the speaker expresses a decision he has made. To become - なる なる is the verb to become. You can use it to express a change. なる follows nouns and both types of adjectives. Adjective + なる express change like Adjective + する. However, なる refers to a change that is not in someone's control. Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません The phrase かもしらない is used to express possibility or uncertainty. You can translate it with "perhaps", or "might be". It's made from 知る (しる) : to know, in the non-past negative form. The more casual form is : かも. It’d be better to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. It’d be better not to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. You must - なければいけない When you say you must or need to do something. なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. From polite to casual: ければなりません (polite) ければいけません (polite) ければいけない (casual) ければならない (casual) きゃだめだ (rude) きゃ (rude) Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ You use なければいけない to say it's necessary to do something if not … or otherwise ... なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. The casual form often used when speaking is なきゃいけない. たら The た-Form and ら-Form together indicates a condition. If after expressing a condition, we invite somebody to do something together, or we express a request or a hope, and use たら. You can use と instead of たら under a certain condition where something always occurs. と If と comes after a verb or an adjective, it indicates a condition. It translates into as soon as, when, or if. We use と, when we show that under a certain condition, something always occurs as a law of nature, a habit, or an expected result. Verbs take the short form before と. てしまいました You say しまいました after the て-form of a verb to say that you have ended or completed an action. You can no longer redo the action or bring it back to the former state. So it's often use when you failed in doing something or showing regret. Too much - すぎる すぎる is a helping verb that means "too much". You can use it when somehting is beyond normal or proper. すぎる follows the adjective base, replacing the い or な. It conjugates as a regular る-Verb. Imperative form The command form is often used at the time of an emergency, or for signs, such as traffic. Don t - な The negative imperative is an extremely strong imperative, and thus tends to be used mostly by males in very informal speech, or by a superior to a subordinate in a social organization where the hierarchy of power and one’s position in it are clearly established.
Tags
ID 274
Chronology 220
Chapter Reason / purpose
Lesson Because, since - から
Content から is a particle that connects two subjects to show a reason or cause.The first object is the reason or explanation and the second is the result or situation.You can inverse the two but から is awalys attached to the reason / explanation.The second object can be omitted.Noun and adjective require a copula (だ / です) so it doesn't get mixed up with から meaning "from".から becomes だから or ですから.The の before だから indicates that the speaker is emphasizing what he's saying. Usually a personal judgement.It can be shortened to ん.
Structure (situation)。 Explanationから。Verb + からい-Adjective + からNoun + だからな-Adjective + だから
Recap
Expression1 来年[らいねん] 日本[にっぽん]へ 行[い]くから 日本語[にほんご]を 勉強[べんきょう]しています。
Exemple1-en I'm studying Japanese because I'm going to Japan next year.
Expression2 歌[うた]うのが 好[す]きだから、カラオケに 行[い]きます。
Exemple2-en Because I like singing, I go to (do) karaoke.
Expression3 私[わたし]は 犬[いぬ]が 好[す]きですから。
Exemple3-en Because I like dogs.
TabsBunpro からbecause・sinceVerb + から い-Adjective + から Noun + だから な-Adjective + だから[から can mark subjective or objective causes/reasons while ので marks objective ones・emphasis on the cause]
TabsDictionary
TabsGenki
TabsImabi
TabsNHK15 Differences between KARA and NODE (Lesson 28) We use both KARA and NODE to explain a reason. For example, if an adjective, KAWAII (cute, pretty), is the reason, you can say either KAWAII KARA or KAWAII NODE.   But when you use them with NA adjectives or nouns, KARA becomes DAKARA, and NODE becomes NANODE. Let’s suppose, for example, YAKUSOKU (a promise) is the reason. YAKUSOKU is a noun. So, if you use KARA, you say YAKUSOKU DAKARA. If you use NODE, you say YAKUSOKU NANODE.  KARA and NODE mean almost the same thing. But if you use NODE, your explanation will sound softer. That's because N in NODE sounds softer than K in KARA. So, NODE is used more often in business and on formal occasions. People want to sound gentler and more cordial at such times.
References Bunpro: から Genki I: Lesson 06-6-からGenki I: Lesson 09-4-からJPOD101: Lesson 5NHK15: Lesson 14NHK15: Lesson 28
Examples
TabsTableofContent Basic Sentence Is - Copula だ   Is (polite) - Copula です   Topic - Particle は   Is not - じゃない   Is not (polite) - ではありません   Ask questions - Particle か Adjectives い Adjectives   な Adjectives Conjugation - Copulas Past - だった   Past (polite) - でした   Past negative - じゃなかった   Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした Demonstratives Kosoado This - これ   That - それ   That over there - あれ   This - この   That - その   That over there - あの   Here - ここ   There - そこ   Over there - あそこ Conjugation - Present Stem form   Non Past - Postive Form   Non Past - Negative Form   Non Past - Polite form Particles は - Topic marker   か - Or   を- Object of action   へ - Direction - To; toward.   に - Direction - To; toward.   に - Location - In; at; on   に - Target   に - Frequency   に - Time   で - Range   で - Means - By, with   で - Location of action - At, in   で - Amount   も - Also, too, as well   も - Even, as many   の - Possessive   の - Relative locations   が - Subject marker   が - Subject marker - Describing   が - But, however   と - With   と - And   や - And … (making list) Interogative pronouns Which - どれ   Which - どの   Where - どこ   Who - だれ Ending particles Right - ね   だろう   でしょう   よ   わ Verbs To do - する   There is - ある (inanimate)   There is - いる (animate)   Transitive and intransitive verbs Conjugation - Past Past - Positive Form   Past - Negative Form   Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation   な-Adjectives conjugation   Adjective exeption, Good - いい か and も suffix Something - 何か   Anything - 何も   Someone - 誰か    Anyone - 誰も   Sometime - いつか   Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか   Nowhere - どこも Adverbs Adjectives into adverbs Frequency Adverbs Often - よく   Sometimes - 時々   Not at all - 全然   Not much - あまり ない Adverbs of quantity A lot - たくさん   Approximately - くらい Counters Counters - 助数詞   Counting people Te form Te form - Conjugation   Te form - Adjectives Conjugation    V-ing - ている   てある - has been done Connecting Sentences Te form - Connecting verbs   Te form - Connecting sentences Request Please do - てください   Please don t - ないでください Permissison Give permission - てもいい   Ask permission - てもいいですか   Interdiction - てはいけない Conjugation - Volitional Volitionnal Suggestion Let s, Shall - ましょう   Let me do - ましょうか   Why don t you - ませんか   I want to [V] - たい   I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている   Someone wants to [V] - たがる   Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました Reason / purpose Because, since - から   The explanatory - ん / の   Causal relationship - で   Because, since - ので Time Duration - 時間   To go ... - に行く   When, at the time - 時   About - ごろ   From - から   Before, ago - 前に   After doing -てから   Until, to, by - まで   By the time - までに   Still - まだ   Yet - まだ ていない Nominalizer Nominalizer - こと   Verb Nominalizer - のが Like To like - 好き   To like doing - のが好き   To dislike - きらい Comparison More than, less than - より...のほう   Between … which one - と...と、 どちら   The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ Modifying nouns Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers   Modifying Nouns - Relative clause Using の Adjective + の - one   Pronoun one - の To give and receive To give - あげる   To receive - くれる   Good at doing - 上手   Bad at doing - 下手   Knowledgeable - 詳しい Planning to do つもり Conjugation - Potential Potential form Able / Not able Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) Experience Past experience - たことがある Reporting I think - と思う。   Said that - と言っていました   Looks like - そう   Do things like - たり~たりする   To decide on - にする   To become - なる Guess Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません   It’d be better to - ほうがいい   It’d be better not to - ほうがいい   You must - なければいけない   Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ Conditionals たら   と   てしまいました Sugimasu Too much - すぎる Conjugation - Imperative Imperative form   Don t - な
TabsAllLessons Lesson Content Is - Copula だ だ is a copula. It's not the verb "to be" but it can be translated as "is". It is used to declare what one believes to be a fact. だ can be omitted, but it's very casual. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is (polite) - Copula です です is a copula. It indicates politeness and always goes at the end of a sentence. In english both だ and です can be translated by the verb "To be", which leads to confusion. です is used in polite sentences and can be seen as the polite form of だ, but it's not. They are not the same. They are used differently grammaticaly. Because です indicates politeness, you can use it after い-Adjectives whithout redundancy. You can't with だ. Topic - Particle は は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. "A は B だ" is the most basic sentence structure. It means A is B. は is pronounced わ. The prononciation changed over the years but the spelling as は stayed. Is not - じゃない To turn a positive sentence into a negative one, you can replace the copula だ by じゃない. "A は B じゃない" means A is not B. The full form is : ではない, but では can be abbreviated to じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness : ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is not (polite) - ではありません You can replace the copula です by ではありません to make the sentence negative. では can be abbreviated by じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness. From polite to casual:  ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです Ask questions - Particle か Add か at the end of a declarative sentence to turn it into a question. Unlike English, word order does not change in Japanese when changing a sentence into a question. The sentence has to go up in pitch (upward intonation) to indicate a question. か is like an oral "?". か is usually used with a period : か。 For casual questions, か can be replaced by the other particle の or just omitted. い Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. い-Adjectives are called that way because they always end in い. い-Adjectives behave like verbs and can be conjugated. Therefore, they can be placed at the end of a sentence. You don't need to add a verb or a copula to make a correct sentence. Because い-Adjectives already behave like verbs, you cannot add だ or one of his conjugation after it. It would be redundant. You conjugate the い-Adjective directly. However, you can add です for politeness. な Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. They are called な-Adjectives beacuse you attach な to the adjective before a noun. Few な-Adjectives can also end in い (like 綺麗 : きれい, pretty), but い-Adjectives all end in い. Conjugating な-Adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. That's why you can place the copula だ after a な-Adjectives. Past - だった You can conjugate the copula だ. The positive past form is: だった. It can be translated as "was" or "were". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past (polite) - でした You can conjugate the copula です. The positive past form is: でした. It can be translated as "was" or "were". Past negative - じゃなかった You can conjugate the copula だ. The negative past form: ではなかった or じゃなかった. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした You can conjugate the copula です. The negative past form: ではありませんでした. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". This - これ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - それ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あれ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). This - この When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - その When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あの When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). Here - ここ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. There - そこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Over there - あそこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Stem form There are る-verbs (Ichidan - group 1) and う-verbs (Godan - group 2). The last hiragana of the verb indicates the group. る verbs always end in る. う verbs end in various hiragana, and sometimes end in る as well. The verb without the last hiragana is called the "stem form". It's upon that stem form that all conjugations are built. Verbs are by default presented in what is called the Dictionary or plain-form. It's called that way because that's how you will find a verb in a Dictionary. Non Past - Postive Form The present tense is used to describe something habitual or frequent. It can also represent something you'll be doing in the future. Because it can describe actions for both present and future, it is sometime called "non past form" as it's more accurate than just present. Non Past - Negative Form Ichidan : take off る and add ない (casual). Godan : replace the last う sound with the matching あ sound. Add ない. Godan : for verbs that end in う, it becomes わ rather than あ. Non Past - Polite form All polite verbs end with ます. It's the more polite version of the Dictionary / plain form. Most textbooks will introduce the polite form has the conjugation "by default". It's because you're expected to speak in formal way before a casual way. However remember that the polite form is a conjugation form. は - Topic marker は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. But by omitting the rest of sentence, は can be used to ask question. か - Or A particle which marks an alternative, a choice between two things (or more) like “or.” を- Object of action を is used to show the direct object of a sentence. Direct objects receive the action of the verb. を is pronounced like お. へ - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Location - In; at; on The particle に denotes the location where someone or something exists. に - Target に indicate targets (indirect objects). This is mostly used when you give or do something for someone. に - Frequency に follows the frequency of events over a period of time. Used as "per". に - Time に follows the specific time you want to talk about, whether it's a date or an hour. Some time-expressions do not need に, like "today" or "tomorrow". You also don't need に when you are describing regular intervals, like "every week". で - Range で can express ranges. In time or space. There is a case that you don’t use the particle で even if you express a period of time. If you express actions which take place for a while,  the particle で is not generally used. When you use the particle で, it indicates that you will complete actions. Here are the comparisons : 1時間宿題をします。 [I will] do my homework for an hour. 1時間で宿題をします。 [I will] complete my homework within an hour. で - Means - By, with で specifies the context in which the action is performed, the means, method or instruments. で follows the tool that you are using. The "tool" doesn't have to be a physical object. It can be translated with : by, with, in, by means of … で - Location of action - At, in で is used to indicate the location of an action. It can be translated with : at, in, on. When you use an object to perform an action, で indicates what you are using. で indicates that someone is doing something in a specific place. で - Amount で can express amount. In this context, で can be placed after any word which indicates quantity. も - Also, too, as well も is a particle used to indicate that something that has previously been stated also holds true for the item currently under discussion. It corresponds with the English words "also" or "too", and replaces が, は or を when used. Other particles, such as に, may be used in combination with も. も - Even, as many も is a particle that can follow many types of words and phrases. It may be used to imply the existence of other similar items without specifically mentioning them, or for emphasis. の - Possessive の is a particle that connects two nouns. The second noun is the main idea, the first is more specific. Among many usage, の indicates possession. Example: X の Y Translation: X's Y or Y belongs to X. の - Relative locations Between two nouns, the first one indicates the nature or attribute of the second one with the help of の. This structure is used to describe locations. You use the particle の between a reference and the relative location. In english, it would be translated by "of", like "in front of", "left of"... Relative locations : 前 (in front) うしろ (behind) 中 (inside) が - Subject marker A particle which indicates the subject. が and は seem similar when translated in english. は focus on the subject / theme of the sentence. が focus on the subject, it identifies something or someone specific. が - Subject marker - Describing To describe people physical attributes, we use the particles は and が. が - But, however が can be used to make contrast. It can be translated by "but" or "however". と - With と is used when you want to say things are being done with someone. It comes after a noun to mean "with noun". と - And と can be translated by "and" when making an exhaustive list (2 or 3 items only), connecting nouns. It can also mean together with. や - And … (making list) や connects two nouns to make a non-exhaustive list. や is similar to と.  The difference is that や implies there are more items to the list. It is often used with など, which means "etc." Which - どれ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どれ means "which ?". Which - どの The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どの means "Which ?" and must be followed by a noun. は is not used with どの. We use が. Where - どこ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どこ means "where?" A common way to ask the location of X, is with this question: X はどこですか。  Who - だれ だれ means "Who?" Fomal form is どなた. Right - ね Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. ね is used when seeking confirmation or agreement, like "right ?" or "isn't it ?" だろう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. だろう is used at the end of a sentence to ask confirmation. だろう is more masculine or casual version of でしょう. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". だろう is the volitional form of the copula である. でしょう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. でしょう is used at the end of a sentence when you talk about a prediction, somehting uncertain, or to ask confirmation. It has an uncertain tone to it. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". The contracted form is でしょ. でしょう is the polite form of だろう. You can use でしょうか to ask another person's opinion or guess. よ よ indicates certainty or emphasis, like giving new information to the listener. わ わ is a sentence-ending particle that indicates a slightly emphatic tone. It's mainly used by a female speakers. わ precedes other sentence ending particles such as ね or よ. To do - する する can be translated as "to do" but in a broader sense than in english. You can make a noun into a verb by adding する to it. There is - ある (inanimate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). There is - いる (animate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). Transitive and intransitive verbs Some verbs in japanese exist like pairs. Transitive verb : an action is done, the verb has an object. We use the particle を. Intransitive verb : something happens, the verb doesnot have an object. We use the particle が. Past - Positive Form Ichidan Take off る and add た Godan Take off the last hiragana and replace it by ... く    →  いた ぐ    →  いだ す    →  した るうつ  → った む,ぶ,ぬ  → んだ Past - Negative Form Take the Non-Past Negative form of a verb. It ends in ない. Take off the い and replace it with かった. Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation Because い Adjectives behave like verbs, you can conjugate them. Behaving like verbs, they can end a sentence. To turn い-Adjectives into the negative form, you change the い to くない. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. な-Adjectives conjugation Conjugating な adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. Adjective exeption, Good - いい The い-Adjective いい (good) is an exeption. The word for “good” was originally 良い (よい). When it is written in Kanji, it is usually read as よい. All the conjugations are still derived from よい and not いい. The conjugation pattern is the same as the other い-Adjectives. You can add です to make it polite. The honorific polite form of いい and よい is よろしい. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Something - 何か 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Anything - 何も 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Someone - 誰か  誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Anyone - 誰も 誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Sometime - いつか いつ means when. いつか is some time. いつも is always. It can be a postive or negative sentence. Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか どこ means where. どこか means somewhere. どこも means anywhere or nowhere. The sentence must be negative. Nowhere - どこも   Adjectives into adverbs You can turn adjectives into adverbs. These adverbs are normally translated with "-ly" in english. For  い-Adjective, change the final い to く. For  な-Adjective, you add に. Often - よく You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Sometimes - 時々 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Not at all - 全然 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. 全然 (ぜんぜん) is an adverb that usually precedes verbs in their negative form (or adjectives with negative connotations, such as だめ) in order to express the nuance of "not at all" or "absolutely not". Although 全然 is usually used in this fashion, it may also be used together with verbs in affirmative form in informal speech, or adjectives with positive connotations. In this case, it expresses the nuance of "very or extremely". As with all adverbs in Japanese, the adverb precedes the verb/adjective it modifies. Not much - あまり ない The adverb あまり usually occurs in negative sentences, meaning 'not very (much)'. あまり litteraly means "too much". あんまり is a variant of あまり and usually used in conversation. In limited situations, あまり can be used in affirmative sentences, too. In this case, it means 'very; too' with a negative implication. あまり always precedes the verb. A lot - たくさん たくさん is used as an adverb modifying the amount or volume of something. いっぱい  also means a lot. The two can usually be used interchangeably. いっぱい sounds more a bit more colloquial than たくさん. Approximately - くらい くらい (or ぐらい) is an adverbial particle used to roughly indicate amount or extent. It is usually translated as "about" or "approximately". It always directly follows the amount/extent that it modifies. Counters - 助数詞 Japanese use different words when counting items. They are called counters. The counter is placed after the number. Here is a few counter exemples : People: 一人 (nin) *Special exceptions are made for one person (一人, "hitori") and two people (二人, "futari") (Small) objects: ー個 (ko) Long thin objects (inc. bottles): ー本 (hon) Thin, flat objects (inc. sheets of paper): ー枚 (mai) Drinking glasses: ー杯 (hai) Places: ー箇所 (kasho) Seconds: 一秒(byou) Minutes: 一分(fun) Hours: 一時間(jikan) Days: ー日 (nichi) Weeks: 週間 (shuukan) Months: ーヶ月 (kagetsu) Years: ー年間 (nenkan) Nights (spent overnight somewhere): ー泊 (haku) Rolls of things (inc. scrolls): ー巻 (kan) Pages: 一ページ (peeji) Books: 一冊(satsu) Letters: 一葉(you) Homes: 一戸(ko)、一軒(ken)、一棟(mune) Tatami mats: 一畳 (jou) Tsubo (3.31 square meter area): ー坪 (tsubo) Small animals (inc. most insects): 一匹 (hiki) Large animals (and some insects): 一頭 (tou) Birds (and rabbits): 一羽 (wa) Fish: ー尾 (bi) Chopsticks: 一膳 (zen) Plates: 一皿 (sara) Boats, ships: 一隻(seki) Cars, trucks, etc.: 一台(dai) Train cars: 一両(ryou)  Flowers: 一輪 (rin) Beats (of music): 一拍(haku) Stocks (e.g. on the stock market): 一株(kabu)  Counting people The counter for people is 人 (にん). One people and two people have irregular readings: 一人: ひとり 二人: ふたり Te form - Conjugation The て is a very versatile conjugation in japanese. It can be used for: - Making request - Connecting activities - Giving / asking permission - Interdictions Te form - Adjectives Conjugation  You can conjugate adjectives to the て form. If you want to use two adjectives, you need to change the first one to the て-Form. い-Adjectives: change the い to くて な-Adjectives: add で V-ing - ている The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb. When ~ていた, the past tense of ている, is used, it expresses an action that was progressing at certain time in the past or someone or something was keeping the action in the same state for a period of time in the past, and now that action is no longer in that state. てある - has been done てある is used when something has been done and we are now looking at the results. てある can only be used with transitive verbs. It's the て form of a verb and ある or あります added. Te form - Connecting verbs We can use the て form to connect two activities in one sentence. You can express a string of action that happens one after another : "I did this and then I did that." The first verb of the sentence is in the て form, the tense of the second verb (or the last of the sentence) determines when these events take place. Two verbs cannot be joined by the particle と, which only connects nouns. Te form - Connecting sentences The same way you can connect two clauses with verbs, you can use the て form for adjectives. It's used like the word "and". Please do - てください To make a  request, use the て-form and add ください. ください can be translated as "please". ください is the imperative form of the verb くださる. It's a rather direct way to ask someone to do something, when you are in a position of authority. You can make a request more polite by using 〜てもらえませんか or 〜ていただけませんか. Usually it's written in kana, but the kanji for ください is 下さい. Please don t - ないでください To request that someone refrain from doing something, use the negative short form of a verb and でください. Give permission - てもいい To give permission to someone to do something, you can use てもいい after the verb. It means that doing [verb] is okay. You can add です after いい to be more polite. In casual speech, you can drop the も. Ask permission - てもいいですか てもいいですか is a simple and casual way to ask permission to do something. In casual from, you can drop も and just use ていい with a rising intonation to indicate a question. Interdiction - てはいけない This form can be used as a strong way of saying something is prohibited. This phrase is referring to the acceptability of the action and not the possibility of the the action being executed. This is used when someone is talking about set rules and regulations. You can think of it as "must not" and "not allowed". いけない is a more casual form of いけません. てはならない also expresses prohibition and is a little stronger than はいけない. In a conversation, ては is sometimes shortened to ちゃ. So, you can say ~ちゃいけません in a daily conversation to tell the listener not to do something. Also, as a casual variation, there is てはだめだ. Volitionnal The volitionnal form is a less formal, more casual equivalent of ましょう. It expresses the will of the speaker. It's also used to suggest something or push someone to do something with you. Let s, Shall - ましょう ましょう is used to suggest something, as an invitation. It can be translated by "let's". It's used to suggest a plan of action. It's the volitional form of ます, or the polite volitional form. Let me do - ましょうか ましょうか is used as an indirect, roundabout way of expressing one's intentions, or making an invitation. Why don t you - ませんか ませんか is used to ask someone if they would like to do something. It implies that it's ok if someone does not want to do the action. It's a suggestion rather than an invitation. The negative form makes the suggestion a bit softer. Without the negative form, the sentence is simply a question instead of being an invitation. The short form of a verb (ない) without か can be used intead of ません to be more casual. I want to [V] - たい たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". It only applies for thing YOU want to do. You cannot use it to speak about other people's intentions. The particle が can replace を when a verb is in the たい form. You can add です after たい to make it more polite. I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている When you have wanted to do something for some time, you can use たいと思っている. たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". 思う (おもう) means to think. ている conjugation is used when a past event is connected to the present. Someone wants to [V] - たがる To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you must use たがっている instead of たい. Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました You can use たいと言っていました to describe someby else desire to [V]. たい only applies to your own desires. Somebody else wishes are usually reported either as quotations, observations or guesses. と言っていました is used to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). Because, since - から から is a particle that connects two subjects to show a reason or cause. The first object is the reason or explanation and the second is the result or situation. You can inverse the two but から is awalys attached to the reason / explanation. The second object can be omitted. Noun and adjective require a copula (だ / です) so it doesn't get mixed up with から meaning "from". から becomes だから or ですから. The の before だから indicates that the speaker is emphasizing what he's saying. Usually a personal judgement. It can be shortened to ん. The explanatory - ん / の んだ or んです is used at the end of a sentence to ask or give a reason or an explanation. It's the shortened form of のです or のだ. Instead of just making a statement, you indicates a reason for something. のだ is used in writing and is more formal than んだ, used in speaking. You can replace  だ by です. It can go after a short form, negative or postive, past or present. When it follows a noun or a な-Adjective, な comes in between. Causal relationship - で で indicates a weak causal relationship between two conditions or events.  It directly follows noun phrases and な-adjectives, but cannot be used after い-adjectives, which have their own -te form. Because, since - ので ので is a conjunctive particle that expresses causes, reasons and motivations, similar to から. から can mark subjective or objective causes/reasons while ので marks objective ones, emphasis on the cause. ので is more formal than から. ので can also be shortened to んで in casual form. Duration - 時間 The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun like 一 時間. It doesn't need to be followed by a particle. To go ... - に行く When you talk about going somewhere to do something. The verb has to be in the stem form. Add に and conjugate 行く. Instead of 行く, you can also use 来る, or 帰り. When, at the time - 時 時 has different readings. Here, it's とき. とき marks a time when an action takes place. It can be translated as when. Subject 1 + とき + Subject 2. When subject 1 happen(ed), subject 2. If the ending of the sentence is in past tense, both events happened in the past. When something hasn't happened yet, or when it happens often, you can use a regular plain form verb before とき. About - ごろ   From - から から expresses a starting point. The source can be location, time … Before, ago - 前に 前 means before. It can be use for both location and time. We use 前 when an action took place before another one. The verb before 前 must be in non-past plain form. 前 means "in front" when talking about directions but here it means "before". When the year is mentionned, の is omitted. After doing -てから You can use から to say after doing [verb]. The verb has to be in the て-Form. The difference with 後 is that てから conveys  a stronger and immediatie relation between the two events. Until, to, by - まで まで refers to a span of time. It's the equivalent to the English expression "until." It can be a time, location … Often used with から to mean "from … to …" By the time - までに までに is a compound word composed of the particle まで and the particle に used to describe a dealine. The use of the に particle indicates that something will occur within the limit set by まで. までに is therefore similar to the English words "by," "before" and "within", with the appropriate translation depending on the context. Still - まだ まだ is an adverb used to indicate a lack of change. It is translated with one of two possible meanings: 1) When used in combination with verbs in positive form, まだ is usually translated as "still". 2) When used in combination with verbs in negative form, まだ is usually translated as "(not) yet". Yet - まだ ていない Expression used to say something has not happened yet. It combines まだ and a verb in the negative ている form. まだ means yet. The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb.At the end of the sentence, a negative verb in ている form. Nominalizer - こと こと is a nominalizer. A nominalizer is a pronoun that converts a verb phrase or an adjective into a noun phrase. You can only use this for the plain form of the verb. Verb Nominalizer - のが To change verbs into nouns, you add の to the short-Form, present or past of a verb. You can also use こと instead of の. To like - 好き In japanese, "To like" is an adjective and not a verb. You can think of it as "desirable". It usually works with が that indicates the object of the adjective. To like doing - のが好き Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". You can use it to talk about liking doing [verb]. To dislike - きらい You use 好き to say you like something or like doing something, 嫌い (きらい) works the same way to say "don't like". Although it ends with い, it's a な-adjective, just like 好き.  More than, less than - より...のほう より...のほう is used to compare two things to show that one is better than the other. In japanese, adjectives have the same shape in noncomparative and comparative sentences. There is no alteration as in "great/greater". The idea of comparison is expressed by adding something to the nouns that are compared. It's often used to describe the speaker's opinion about something. Usually with が好き or いい. They can be used with nouns or verbs. より means "rather than" and modifies the noun before it. You can think of it as a praticle attached to the element with the least value. You can omit either one if the context is understood. Between … which one - と...と、 どちら When you want to compare two things. Attach the particle と after each noun and add どちら. You are asking : "between noun 1 and 2, which …". どちら can be replaced by the more casual どっち. The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ When you compare three or more things, you express which one is the best with 一番 (いちばん) 一番 is used to say "the best", or "the most". Litteraly "number one". の中で~が一番~ indicates the best out of a list. のほう and どっち are not used in statements of comparison among three or more items. Normal questions like だれ, どれ, なに, いつ and どこ are used instead. Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers Adjectives and verbs can be used a qualifiers to a noun. Modifying Nouns - Relative clause The short form of a verb can qualify a noun, just like an adjective can. You can use that sentence as just one noun. A qualifying phrase like this, which has a sentence-like structure of its own, is technically known as a "relaative-clause". Adjective + の - one When a noun follows an adjective, and when it's clear what you are refering to, you can replace the noun with pronoun の, "one". You can use の to avoid repetition. Pronoun one - の When a noun follows another noun, it can be reduced to の. The second noun becomes omitted. To give - あげる When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. To receive - くれる If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. Good at doing - 上手 上手 (じょうず) is a な-Adjective that means skillful, or good at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is good at doing something (or just good at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective とくい instead of 上手. Bad at doing - 下手 下手 (へた) is a な-Adjective that means unskillful, or bad at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is bad at doing something (or just bad at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective 苦手 (にがて) instead of 下手. Knowledgeable - 詳しい 詳しい is an い-adjective meaning detailed, accurate or well-acquainted. You can use it with に to say someone knows a lot about something. つもり つもり follows verbs in the present tense short form to describe what a person is planning to do. つもり following a verb in the negative form decribes what you are not planning to do. Potential form The potential form られ(ます) has two meanings. - Someone's ability to do something. It can also express an inherent capability or possibility. It can be translated by "can do". - Permission to do something under a certain circumstance. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) ができる is used to describe your ability to do something. Like the verb "can", It also expresses the nuance that someone is good at something, especially when used together with adverbs such as よく. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Past experience - たことがある たことがあります is used to indicate a past experience of doing something. It can only be used to talk about things in the far past, not something recent. Therefore the verb is always in the past tense. We cannot use this expression when we have done something repeatedly. We cannot use いつも, たいてい or よく. I think - と思う。 You can use the expression と思う to talk about your own thoughts. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to think 思う (おもう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. To say that you don't think, it's more common to use ないと思います instead of と思いません。 Said that - と言っていました You can use the expression と言っていました to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. と言っていました indicates that you were there and heard the phrase (I heard him saying "..."). と言いました is more appropriate if you weren't there. Looks like - そう そう means "it looks like", "it appears". It's used to show a guess you have about something by looking at it. In case of い-Adjective, you take out the い and add そう. Use the conjucation before そう to tell the difference between "hearsay" or "it looks like". Do things like - たり~たりする To list two or three examples out of a number of actions, use たり~たりする. Contrary to the て-Form, たり implies you did more than the things listed and they weren't in that exact order. Add り after each past tense plain form verb you want to list, then add する or します. The helping verb する at the end of the sentence indicates the tense of the sentence. To decide on - にする This is a slight different meaning from Adjective + する. Here, it is used when the speaker expresses a decision he has made. To become - なる なる is the verb to become. You can use it to express a change. なる follows nouns and both types of adjectives. Adjective + なる express change like Adjective + する. However, なる refers to a change that is not in someone's control. Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません The phrase かもしらない is used to express possibility or uncertainty. You can translate it with "perhaps", or "might be". It's made from 知る (しる) : to know, in the non-past negative form. The more casual form is : かも. It’d be better to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. It’d be better not to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. You must - なければいけない When you say you must or need to do something. なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. From polite to casual: ければなりません (polite) ければいけません (polite) ければいけない (casual) ければならない (casual) きゃだめだ (rude) きゃ (rude) Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ You use なければいけない to say it's necessary to do something if not … or otherwise ... なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. The casual form often used when speaking is なきゃいけない. たら The た-Form and ら-Form together indicates a condition. If after expressing a condition, we invite somebody to do something together, or we express a request or a hope, and use たら. You can use と instead of たら under a certain condition where something always occurs. と If と comes after a verb or an adjective, it indicates a condition. It translates into as soon as, when, or if. We use と, when we show that under a certain condition, something always occurs as a law of nature, a habit, or an expected result. Verbs take the short form before と. てしまいました You say しまいました after the て-form of a verb to say that you have ended or completed an action. You can no longer redo the action or bring it back to the former state. So it's often use when you failed in doing something or showing regret. Too much - すぎる すぎる is a helping verb that means "too much". You can use it when somehting is beyond normal or proper. すぎる follows the adjective base, replacing the い or な. It conjugates as a regular る-Verb. Imperative form The command form is often used at the time of an emergency, or for signs, such as traffic. Don t - な The negative imperative is an extremely strong imperative, and thus tends to be used mostly by males in very informal speech, or by a superior to a subordinate in a social organization where the hierarchy of power and one’s position in it are clearly established.
Tags
ID 294
Chronology 295
Chapter Order
Lesson You must - なければいけない
Content When you say you must or need to do something.なければ means if not.いけない means not good or wrong.From polite to casual:ければなりません (polite)ければいけません (polite)ければいけない (casual)ければならない (casual)きゃだめだ (rude)きゃ (rude)
Structure
Recap
Expression1 仕事[しごと]に 行[い]かなければいけない。
Exemple1-en I have to go to work.
Expression2 覚[おぼ]えにくいけど、 覚[おぼ]えなければいけません。
Exemple2-en It's difficult to remember, but I must.
Expression3 彼[かれ]に 会[あ]いたくないけど、 会[あ]わなければいけません。
Exemple3-en I don't want to see him, but I must.
TabsBunpro なければいけないmust do have to do Verb[ない] + ければ・いけない⚠ Verb[ない]+と+いけない/ならない is also used to express duty or necessity.[いけない often implies that an action must be taken in response to some circumstances, while ならない indicates that that action must be taken due to some rules, beliefs, etc.] [いけない = neutral・ならない = formal/written]
TabsDictionary
TabsGenki
TabsImabi
TabsNHK15 NAI-form verb + NAKEREBA NARIMASEN (Lesson 36) When you say you must or need to do something, you replace the NAI part at the end of the NAI-form of verbs with NAKEREBA NARIMASEN. For example, if you want to say "I must study," you first change the verb BENKYÔ SHIMASU (to study) to its NAI-form, BENKYÔ SHINAI. Then, you replace NAI by NAKEREBA NARIMASEN. So, you say BENKYÔ SHINAKEREBA NARIMASEN.    In a casual way, NAKEREBA NARIMASEN (must, have to, need to) becomes NAKYA. So, you say BENKYÔ SHINAKYA. If you don’t have to do something, you change the NAI part to “don’t have to,” that is, NAKUTEMO II DESU. So, when you say “I don’t have to study,” you change NAI in BENKYÔ SHINAI (not to study) to NAKUTEMO II DESU, and say BENKYÔ SHINAKUTEMO II DESU. But everybody! I tell you it’s important to study.
References Bunpro: なければいけない Genki I: Lesson 12-5-なければいけません なきゃいけませんNHK15: Lesson 36
Examples
TabsTableofContent Basic Sentence Is - Copula だ   Is (polite) - Copula です   Topic - Particle は   Is not - じゃない   Is not (polite) - ではありません   Ask questions - Particle か Adjectives い Adjectives   な Adjectives Conjugation - Copulas Past - だった   Past (polite) - でした   Past negative - じゃなかった   Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした Demonstratives Kosoado This - これ   That - それ   That over there - あれ   This - この   That - その   That over there - あの   Here - ここ   There - そこ   Over there - あそこ Conjugation - Present Stem form   Non Past - Postive Form   Non Past - Negative Form   Non Past - Polite form Particles は - Topic marker   か - Or   を- Object of action   へ - Direction - To; toward.   に - Direction - To; toward.   に - Location - In; at; on   に - Target   に - Frequency   に - Time   で - Range   で - Means - By, with   で - Location of action - At, in   で - Amount   も - Also, too, as well   も - Even, as many   の - Possessive   の - Relative locations   が - Subject marker   が - Subject marker - Describing   が - But, however   と - With   と - And   や - And … (making list) Interogative pronouns Which - どれ   Which - どの   Where - どこ   Who - だれ Ending particles Right - ね   だろう   でしょう   よ   わ Verbs To do - する   There is - ある (inanimate)   There is - いる (animate)   Transitive and intransitive verbs Conjugation - Past Past - Positive Form   Past - Negative Form   Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation   な-Adjectives conjugation   Adjective exeption, Good - いい か and も suffix Something - 何か   Anything - 何も   Someone - 誰か    Anyone - 誰も   Sometime - いつか   Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか   Nowhere - どこも Adverbs Adjectives into adverbs Frequency Adverbs Often - よく   Sometimes - 時々   Not at all - 全然   Not much - あまり ない Adverbs of quantity A lot - たくさん   Approximately - くらい Counters Counters - 助数詞   Counting people Te form Te form - Conjugation   Te form - Adjectives Conjugation    V-ing - ている   てある - has been done Connecting Sentences Te form - Connecting verbs   Te form - Connecting sentences Request Please do - てください   Please don t - ないでください Permissison Give permission - てもいい   Ask permission - てもいいですか   Interdiction - てはいけない Conjugation - Volitional Volitionnal Suggestion Let s, Shall - ましょう   Let me do - ましょうか   Why don t you - ませんか   I want to [V] - たい   I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている   Someone wants to [V] - たがる   Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました Reason / purpose Because, since - から   The explanatory - ん / の   Causal relationship - で   Because, since - ので Time Duration - 時間   To go ... - に行く   When, at the time - 時   About - ごろ   From - から   Before, ago - 前に   After doing -てから   Until, to, by - まで   By the time - までに   Still - まだ   Yet - まだ ていない Nominalizer Nominalizer - こと   Verb Nominalizer - のが Like To like - 好き   To like doing - のが好き   To dislike - きらい Comparison More than, less than - より...のほう   Between … which one - と...と、 どちら   The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ Modifying nouns Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers   Modifying Nouns - Relative clause Using の Adjective + の - one   Pronoun one - の To give and receive To give - あげる   To receive - くれる   Good at doing - 上手   Bad at doing - 下手   Knowledgeable - 詳しい Planning to do つもり Conjugation - Potential Potential form Able / Not able Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) Experience Past experience - たことがある Reporting I think - と思う。   Said that - と言っていました   Looks like - そう   Do things like - たり~たりする   To decide on - にする   To become - なる Guess Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません   It’d be better to - ほうがいい   It’d be better not to - ほうがいい   You must - なければいけない   Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ Conditionals たら   と   てしまいました Sugimasu Too much - すぎる Conjugation - Imperative Imperative form   Don t - な
TabsAllLessons Lesson Content Is - Copula だ だ is a copula. It's not the verb "to be" but it can be translated as "is". It is used to declare what one believes to be a fact. だ can be omitted, but it's very casual. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is (polite) - Copula です です is a copula. It indicates politeness and always goes at the end of a sentence. In english both だ and です can be translated by the verb "To be", which leads to confusion. です is used in polite sentences and can be seen as the polite form of だ, but it's not. They are not the same. They are used differently grammaticaly. Because です indicates politeness, you can use it after い-Adjectives whithout redundancy. You can't with だ. Topic - Particle は は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. "A は B だ" is the most basic sentence structure. It means A is B. は is pronounced わ. The prononciation changed over the years but the spelling as は stayed. Is not - じゃない To turn a positive sentence into a negative one, you can replace the copula だ by じゃない. "A は B じゃない" means A is not B. The full form is : ではない, but では can be abbreviated to じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness : ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Is not (polite) - ではありません You can replace the copula です by ではありません to make the sentence negative. では can be abbreviated by じゃ. There can be many combinations with various degrees of politeness. From polite to casual:  ではありません じゃありません ではないです じゃないです Ask questions - Particle か Add か at the end of a declarative sentence to turn it into a question. Unlike English, word order does not change in Japanese when changing a sentence into a question. The sentence has to go up in pitch (upward intonation) to indicate a question. か is like an oral "?". か is usually used with a period : か。 For casual questions, か can be replaced by the other particle の or just omitted. い Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. い-Adjectives are called that way because they always end in い. い-Adjectives behave like verbs and can be conjugated. Therefore, they can be placed at the end of a sentence. You don't need to add a verb or a copula to make a correct sentence. Because い-Adjectives already behave like verbs, you cannot add だ or one of his conjugation after it. It would be redundant. You conjugate the い-Adjective directly. However, you can add です for politeness. な Adjectives There are two type of adjectives. い-Adjectives and な-Adjectives. They are called な-Adjectives beacuse you attach な to the adjective before a noun. Few な-Adjectives can also end in い (like 綺麗 : きれい, pretty), but い-Adjectives all end in い. Conjugating な-Adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. That's why you can place the copula だ after a な-Adjectives. Past - だった You can conjugate the copula だ. The positive past form is: だった. It can be translated as "was" or "were". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past (polite) - でした You can conjugate the copula です. The positive past form is: でした. It can be translated as "was" or "were". Past negative - じゃなかった You can conjugate the copula だ. The negative past form: ではなかった or じゃなかった. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Past negative (polite) - ではありませんでした You can conjugate the copula です. The negative past form: ではありませんでした. It can be translated as "was not" or "were not". This - これ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - それ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あれ Demonstratives indicate which entities are being referred to. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. これ : This. Close to the speaker. それ : That. Close to the listener. あれ : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). This - この When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That - その When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). That over there - あの When これ それ あれ are followed by a noun, we replace the れ by の. They follow the same pattern of こ そ あ, ordered by proximity. The difference between これ and この is that この directly describes what comes directly after it. この その あの must be followed by a noun. この : This. Close to the speaker. その : That. Close to the listener. あの : That. Far from speaker and listener. This pattern is sometimes called Kosoado (こ そ あ ど). Here - ここ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. There - そこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Over there - あそこ We follow the usual pattern of こ そ あ, for locations as well. ここ そこ あそこ are used to refer to a place. ここ : Here. Close to the speaker. そこ : There. Close to the listener. あそこ : Over there. Far from speaker and listener. Stem form There are る-verbs (Ichidan - group 1) and う-verbs (Godan - group 2). The last hiragana of the verb indicates the group. る verbs always end in る. う verbs end in various hiragana, and sometimes end in る as well. The verb without the last hiragana is called the "stem form". It's upon that stem form that all conjugations are built. Verbs are by default presented in what is called the Dictionary or plain-form. It's called that way because that's how you will find a verb in a Dictionary. Non Past - Postive Form The present tense is used to describe something habitual or frequent. It can also represent something you'll be doing in the future. Because it can describe actions for both present and future, it is sometime called "non past form" as it's more accurate than just present. Non Past - Negative Form Ichidan : take off る and add ない (casual). Godan : replace the last う sound with the matching あ sound. Add ない. Godan : for verbs that end in う, it becomes わ rather than あ. Non Past - Polite form All polite verbs end with ます. It's the more polite version of the Dictionary / plain form. Most textbooks will introduce the polite form has the conjugation "by default". It's because you're expected to speak in formal way before a casual way. However remember that the polite form is a conjugation form. は - Topic marker は is a particle that indicates the topic of the sentence. But by omitting the rest of sentence, は can be used to ask question. か - Or A particle which marks an alternative, a choice between two things (or more) like “or.” を- Object of action を is used to show the direct object of a sentence. Direct objects receive the action of the verb. を is pronounced like お. へ - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Direction - To; toward. へ and に are both used with locations. They are almost interchangeable. へ emphasizes the direction of the location. It focuses on the journey. に emphasizes a specific location. It focuses on the destination. へ can be translated by "to" or "toward". に - Location - In; at; on The particle に denotes the location where someone or something exists. に - Target に indicate targets (indirect objects). This is mostly used when you give or do something for someone. に - Frequency に follows the frequency of events over a period of time. Used as "per". に - Time に follows the specific time you want to talk about, whether it's a date or an hour. Some time-expressions do not need に, like "today" or "tomorrow". You also don't need に when you are describing regular intervals, like "every week". で - Range で can express ranges. In time or space. There is a case that you don’t use the particle で even if you express a period of time. If you express actions which take place for a while,  the particle で is not generally used. When you use the particle で, it indicates that you will complete actions. Here are the comparisons : 1時間宿題をします。 [I will] do my homework for an hour. 1時間で宿題をします。 [I will] complete my homework within an hour. で - Means - By, with で specifies the context in which the action is performed, the means, method or instruments. で follows the tool that you are using. The "tool" doesn't have to be a physical object. It can be translated with : by, with, in, by means of … で - Location of action - At, in で is used to indicate the location of an action. It can be translated with : at, in, on. When you use an object to perform an action, で indicates what you are using. で indicates that someone is doing something in a specific place. で - Amount で can express amount. In this context, で can be placed after any word which indicates quantity. も - Also, too, as well も is a particle used to indicate that something that has previously been stated also holds true for the item currently under discussion. It corresponds with the English words "also" or "too", and replaces が, は or を when used. Other particles, such as に, may be used in combination with も. も - Even, as many も is a particle that can follow many types of words and phrases. It may be used to imply the existence of other similar items without specifically mentioning them, or for emphasis. の - Possessive の is a particle that connects two nouns. The second noun is the main idea, the first is more specific. Among many usage, の indicates possession. Example: X の Y Translation: X's Y or Y belongs to X. の - Relative locations Between two nouns, the first one indicates the nature or attribute of the second one with the help of の. This structure is used to describe locations. You use the particle の between a reference and the relative location. In english, it would be translated by "of", like "in front of", "left of"... Relative locations : 前 (in front) うしろ (behind) 中 (inside) が - Subject marker A particle which indicates the subject. が and は seem similar when translated in english. は focus on the subject / theme of the sentence. が focus on the subject, it identifies something or someone specific. が - Subject marker - Describing To describe people physical attributes, we use the particles は and が. が - But, however が can be used to make contrast. It can be translated by "but" or "however". と - With と is used when you want to say things are being done with someone. It comes after a noun to mean "with noun". と - And と can be translated by "and" when making an exhaustive list (2 or 3 items only), connecting nouns. It can also mean together with. や - And … (making list) や connects two nouns to make a non-exhaustive list. や is similar to と.  The difference is that や implies there are more items to the list. It is often used with など, which means "etc." Which - どれ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どれ means "which ?". Which - どの The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どの means "Which ?" and must be followed by a noun. は is not used with どの. We use が. Where - どこ The fourth element in the pattern こ そ あ ど is for questioning. どこ means "where?" A common way to ask the location of X, is with this question: X はどこですか。  Who - だれ だれ means "Who?" Fomal form is どなた. Right - ね Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. ね is used when seeking confirmation or agreement, like "right ?" or "isn't it ?" だろう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. だろう is used at the end of a sentence to ask confirmation. だろう is more masculine or casual version of でしょう. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". だろう is the volitional form of the copula である. でしょう Japanese has a few sentence ending particles to change the tone or feel of a sentence. でしょう is used at the end of a sentence when you talk about a prediction, somehting uncertain, or to ask confirmation. It has an uncertain tone to it. Can be translated by "right ?" or "probably". The contracted form is でしょ. でしょう is the polite form of だろう. You can use でしょうか to ask another person's opinion or guess. よ よ indicates certainty or emphasis, like giving new information to the listener. わ わ is a sentence-ending particle that indicates a slightly emphatic tone. It's mainly used by a female speakers. わ precedes other sentence ending particles such as ね or よ. To do - する する can be translated as "to do" but in a broader sense than in english. You can make a noun into a verb by adding する to it. There is - ある (inanimate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). There is - いる (animate) The two verbs いる and ある are used to expressed existence and not actions. We can translate it by "there is …", but it refers to the existence and not a location. You can use it to say someone or something is somewhere. It can also be used when an event is being held, or having objects. It's also used with abstact things, like experiences or time, opportunities... ある is used for non-living things. いる is used for living things (people, animals). Transitive and intransitive verbs Some verbs in japanese exist like pairs. Transitive verb : an action is done, the verb has an object. We use the particle を. Intransitive verb : something happens, the verb doesnot have an object. We use the particle が. Past - Positive Form Ichidan Take off る and add た Godan Take off the last hiragana and replace it by ... く    →  いた ぐ    →  いだ す    →  した るうつ  → った む,ぶ,ぬ  → んだ Past - Negative Form Take the Non-Past Negative form of a verb. It ends in ない. Take off the い and replace it with かった. Past - Polite Form   い-Adjectives conjugation Because い Adjectives behave like verbs, you can conjugate them. Behaving like verbs, they can end a sentence. To turn い-Adjectives into the negative form, you change the い to くない. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. な-Adjectives conjugation Conjugating な adjectives is the same as conjugating nouns. By conjugating the copula. Adjective exeption, Good - いい The い-Adjective いい (good) is an exeption. The word for “good” was originally 良い (よい). When it is written in Kanji, it is usually read as よい. All the conjugations are still derived from よい and not いい. The conjugation pattern is the same as the other い-Adjectives. You can add です to make it polite. The honorific polite form of いい and よい is よろしい. ⚠ No だ and だ's conjugations after い-Adjectives. Both だ and  い-Adjectives express a state of being, one following the other would be a redundancy and grammaticaly incorrect. Something - 何か 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Anything - 何も 何 means what. 何か means something. 何も means anything or nothing. The sentence must be negative. Someone - 誰か  誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Anyone - 誰も 誰 means who. 誰か is someone. 誰も is anyone or no one. Sometime - いつか いつ means when. いつか is some time. いつも is always. It can be a postive or negative sentence. Always - いつも   Somewhere - どこか どこ means where. どこか means somewhere. どこも means anywhere or nowhere. The sentence must be negative. Nowhere - どこも   Adjectives into adverbs You can turn adjectives into adverbs. These adverbs are normally translated with "-ly" in english. For  い-Adjective, change the final い to く. For  な-Adjective, you add に. Often - よく You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Sometimes - 時々 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. No particles is attached to adverbs. Not at all - 全然 You can use frequency adverbs to describe how often you do something. 全然 (ぜんぜん) is an adverb that usually precedes verbs in their negative form (or adjectives with negative connotations, such as だめ) in order to express the nuance of "not at all" or "absolutely not". Although 全然 is usually used in this fashion, it may also be used together with verbs in affirmative form in informal speech, or adjectives with positive connotations. In this case, it expresses the nuance of "very or extremely". As with all adverbs in Japanese, the adverb precedes the verb/adjective it modifies. Not much - あまり ない The adverb あまり usually occurs in negative sentences, meaning 'not very (much)'. あまり litteraly means "too much". あんまり is a variant of あまり and usually used in conversation. In limited situations, あまり can be used in affirmative sentences, too. In this case, it means 'very; too' with a negative implication. あまり always precedes the verb. A lot - たくさん たくさん is used as an adverb modifying the amount or volume of something. いっぱい  also means a lot. The two can usually be used interchangeably. いっぱい sounds more a bit more colloquial than たくさん. Approximately - くらい くらい (or ぐらい) is an adverbial particle used to roughly indicate amount or extent. It is usually translated as "about" or "approximately". It always directly follows the amount/extent that it modifies. Counters - 助数詞 Japanese use different words when counting items. They are called counters. The counter is placed after the number. Here is a few counter exemples : People: 一人 (nin) *Special exceptions are made for one person (一人, "hitori") and two people (二人, "futari") (Small) objects: ー個 (ko) Long thin objects (inc. bottles): ー本 (hon) Thin, flat objects (inc. sheets of paper): ー枚 (mai) Drinking glasses: ー杯 (hai) Places: ー箇所 (kasho) Seconds: 一秒(byou) Minutes: 一分(fun) Hours: 一時間(jikan) Days: ー日 (nichi) Weeks: 週間 (shuukan) Months: ーヶ月 (kagetsu) Years: ー年間 (nenkan) Nights (spent overnight somewhere): ー泊 (haku) Rolls of things (inc. scrolls): ー巻 (kan) Pages: 一ページ (peeji) Books: 一冊(satsu) Letters: 一葉(you) Homes: 一戸(ko)、一軒(ken)、一棟(mune) Tatami mats: 一畳 (jou) Tsubo (3.31 square meter area): ー坪 (tsubo) Small animals (inc. most insects): 一匹 (hiki) Large animals (and some insects): 一頭 (tou) Birds (and rabbits): 一羽 (wa) Fish: ー尾 (bi) Chopsticks: 一膳 (zen) Plates: 一皿 (sara) Boats, ships: 一隻(seki) Cars, trucks, etc.: 一台(dai) Train cars: 一両(ryou)  Flowers: 一輪 (rin) Beats (of music): 一拍(haku) Stocks (e.g. on the stock market): 一株(kabu)  Counting people The counter for people is 人 (にん). One people and two people have irregular readings: 一人: ひとり 二人: ふたり Te form - Conjugation The て is a very versatile conjugation in japanese. It can be used for: - Making request - Connecting activities - Giving / asking permission - Interdictions Te form - Adjectives Conjugation  You can conjugate adjectives to the て form. If you want to use two adjectives, you need to change the first one to the て-Form. い-Adjectives: change the い to くて な-Adjectives: add で V-ing - ている The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb. When ~ていた, the past tense of ている, is used, it expresses an action that was progressing at certain time in the past or someone or something was keeping the action in the same state for a period of time in the past, and now that action is no longer in that state. てある - has been done てある is used when something has been done and we are now looking at the results. てある can only be used with transitive verbs. It's the て form of a verb and ある or あります added. Te form - Connecting verbs We can use the て form to connect two activities in one sentence. You can express a string of action that happens one after another : "I did this and then I did that." The first verb of the sentence is in the て form, the tense of the second verb (or the last of the sentence) determines when these events take place. Two verbs cannot be joined by the particle と, which only connects nouns. Te form - Connecting sentences The same way you can connect two clauses with verbs, you can use the て form for adjectives. It's used like the word "and". Please do - てください To make a  request, use the て-form and add ください. ください can be translated as "please". ください is the imperative form of the verb くださる. It's a rather direct way to ask someone to do something, when you are in a position of authority. You can make a request more polite by using 〜てもらえませんか or 〜ていただけませんか. Usually it's written in kana, but the kanji for ください is 下さい. Please don t - ないでください To request that someone refrain from doing something, use the negative short form of a verb and でください. Give permission - てもいい To give permission to someone to do something, you can use てもいい after the verb. It means that doing [verb] is okay. You can add です after いい to be more polite. In casual speech, you can drop the も. Ask permission - てもいいですか てもいいですか is a simple and casual way to ask permission to do something. In casual from, you can drop も and just use ていい with a rising intonation to indicate a question. Interdiction - てはいけない This form can be used as a strong way of saying something is prohibited. This phrase is referring to the acceptability of the action and not the possibility of the the action being executed. This is used when someone is talking about set rules and regulations. You can think of it as "must not" and "not allowed". いけない is a more casual form of いけません. てはならない also expresses prohibition and is a little stronger than はいけない. In a conversation, ては is sometimes shortened to ちゃ. So, you can say ~ちゃいけません in a daily conversation to tell the listener not to do something. Also, as a casual variation, there is てはだめだ. Volitionnal The volitionnal form is a less formal, more casual equivalent of ましょう. It expresses the will of the speaker. It's also used to suggest something or push someone to do something with you. Let s, Shall - ましょう ましょう is used to suggest something, as an invitation. It can be translated by "let's". It's used to suggest a plan of action. It's the volitional form of ます, or the polite volitional form. Let me do - ましょうか ましょうか is used as an indirect, roundabout way of expressing one's intentions, or making an invitation. Why don t you - ませんか ませんか is used to ask someone if they would like to do something. It implies that it's ok if someone does not want to do the action. It's a suggestion rather than an invitation. The negative form makes the suggestion a bit softer. Without the negative form, the sentence is simply a question instead of being an invitation. The short form of a verb (ない) without か can be used intead of ません to be more casual. I want to [V] - たい たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". It only applies for thing YOU want to do. You cannot use it to speak about other people's intentions. The particle が can replace を when a verb is in the たい form. You can add です after たい to make it more polite. I have wanted to [V] - たいと思っている When you have wanted to do something for some time, you can use たいと思っている. たい is added to the verb stem to say "I want to + Verb". 思う (おもう) means to think. ている conjugation is used when a past event is connected to the present. Someone wants to [V] - たがる To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you must use たがっている instead of たい. Someone wants to [V] - たいと言っていました You can use たいと言っていました to describe someby else desire to [V]. たい only applies to your own desires. Somebody else wishes are usually reported either as quotations, observations or guesses. と言っていました is used to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). Because, since - から から is a particle that connects two subjects to show a reason or cause. The first object is the reason or explanation and the second is the result or situation. You can inverse the two but から is awalys attached to the reason / explanation. The second object can be omitted. Noun and adjective require a copula (だ / です) so it doesn't get mixed up with から meaning "from". から becomes だから or ですから. The の before だから indicates that the speaker is emphasizing what he's saying. Usually a personal judgement. It can be shortened to ん. The explanatory - ん / の んだ or んです is used at the end of a sentence to ask or give a reason or an explanation. It's the shortened form of のです or のだ. Instead of just making a statement, you indicates a reason for something. のだ is used in writing and is more formal than んだ, used in speaking. You can replace  だ by です. It can go after a short form, negative or postive, past or present. When it follows a noun or a な-Adjective, な comes in between. Causal relationship - で で indicates a weak causal relationship between two conditions or events.  It directly follows noun phrases and な-adjectives, but cannot be used after い-adjectives, which have their own -te form. Because, since - ので ので is a conjunctive particle that expresses causes, reasons and motivations, similar to から. から can mark subjective or objective causes/reasons while ので marks objective ones, emphasis on the cause. ので is more formal than から. ので can also be shortened to んで in casual form. Duration - 時間 The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun like 一 時間. It doesn't need to be followed by a particle. To go ... - に行く When you talk about going somewhere to do something. The verb has to be in the stem form. Add に and conjugate 行く. Instead of 行く, you can also use 来る, or 帰り. When, at the time - 時 時 has different readings. Here, it's とき. とき marks a time when an action takes place. It can be translated as when. Subject 1 + とき + Subject 2. When subject 1 happen(ed), subject 2. If the ending of the sentence is in past tense, both events happened in the past. When something hasn't happened yet, or when it happens often, you can use a regular plain form verb before とき. About - ごろ   From - から から expresses a starting point. The source can be location, time … Before, ago - 前に 前 means before. It can be use for both location and time. We use 前 when an action took place before another one. The verb before 前 must be in non-past plain form. 前 means "in front" when talking about directions but here it means "before". When the year is mentionned, の is omitted. After doing -てから You can use から to say after doing [verb]. The verb has to be in the て-Form. The difference with 後 is that てから conveys  a stronger and immediatie relation between the two events. Until, to, by - まで まで refers to a span of time. It's the equivalent to the English expression "until." It can be a time, location … Often used with から to mean "from … to …" By the time - までに までに is a compound word composed of the particle まで and the particle に used to describe a dealine. The use of the に particle indicates that something will occur within the limit set by まで. までに is therefore similar to the English words "by," "before" and "within", with the appropriate translation depending on the context. Still - まだ まだ is an adverb used to indicate a lack of change. It is translated with one of two possible meanings: 1) When used in combination with verbs in positive form, まだ is usually translated as "still". 2) When used in combination with verbs in negative form, まだ is usually translated as "(not) yet". Yet - まだ ていない Expression used to say something has not happened yet. It combines まだ and a verb in the negative ている form. まだ means yet. The て-form can be joinded by the verb いる to form the ている conjugation. It means either : - an action in progress - a past event that is connected to the present. In casual spoken Japanese the い is often dropped. (食べている → 食べてる) The polite form is います. The auxiliary verb いる conjugates as る-verb.At the end of the sentence, a negative verb in ている form. Nominalizer - こと こと is a nominalizer. A nominalizer is a pronoun that converts a verb phrase or an adjective into a noun phrase. You can only use this for the plain form of the verb. Verb Nominalizer - のが To change verbs into nouns, you add の to the short-Form, present or past of a verb. You can also use こと instead of の. To like - 好き In japanese, "To like" is an adjective and not a verb. You can think of it as "desirable". It usually works with が that indicates the object of the adjective. To like doing - のが好き Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". You can use it to talk about liking doing [verb]. To dislike - きらい You use 好き to say you like something or like doing something, 嫌い (きらい) works the same way to say "don't like". Although it ends with い, it's a な-adjective, just like 好き.  More than, less than - より...のほう より...のほう is used to compare two things to show that one is better than the other. In japanese, adjectives have the same shape in noncomparative and comparative sentences. There is no alteration as in "great/greater". The idea of comparison is expressed by adding something to the nouns that are compared. It's often used to describe the speaker's opinion about something. Usually with が好き or いい. They can be used with nouns or verbs. より means "rather than" and modifies the noun before it. You can think of it as a praticle attached to the element with the least value. You can omit either one if the context is understood. Between … which one - と...と、 どちら When you want to compare two things. Attach the particle と after each noun and add どちら. You are asking : "between noun 1 and 2, which …". どちら can be replaced by the more casual どっち. The most … out of … - の中で~が一番~ When you compare three or more things, you express which one is the best with 一番 (いちばん) 一番 is used to say "the best", or "the most". Litteraly "number one". の中で~が一番~ indicates the best out of a list. のほう and どっち are not used in statements of comparison among three or more items. Normal questions like だれ, どれ, なに, いつ and どこ are used instead. Modifying Nouns - Qualifiers Adjectives and verbs can be used a qualifiers to a noun. Modifying Nouns - Relative clause The short form of a verb can qualify a noun, just like an adjective can. You can use that sentence as just one noun. A qualifying phrase like this, which has a sentence-like structure of its own, is technically known as a "relaative-clause". Adjective + の - one When a noun follows an adjective, and when it's clear what you are refering to, you can replace the noun with pronoun の, "one". You can use の to avoid repetition. Pronoun one - の When a noun follows another noun, it can be reduced to の. The second noun becomes omitted. To give - あげる When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. To receive - くれる If somebody gives you something, you use くれます. In japanese, different verbs are used, depending on wether you are speaking from the perspective of the giver or the receiver. When the speaker gives somehting to the listener, the speaker says あげます. あげます is also used, when people generally give something to others. Good at doing - 上手 上手 (じょうず) is a な-Adjective that means skillful, or good at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is good at doing something (or just good at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective とくい instead of 上手. Bad at doing - 下手 下手 (へた) is a な-Adjective that means unskillful, or bad at. Add の after the short form of a verb to express the idea of "doing [verb]". Connect the two with が to mean someone is bad at doing something (or just bad at). When talking about yourself you can use the な-adjective 苦手 (にがて) instead of 下手. Knowledgeable - 詳しい 詳しい is an い-adjective meaning detailed, accurate or well-acquainted. You can use it with に to say someone knows a lot about something. つもり つもり follows verbs in the present tense short form to describe what a person is planning to do. つもり following a verb in the negative form decribes what you are not planning to do. Potential form The potential form られ(ます) has two meanings. - Someone's ability to do something. It can also express an inherent capability or possibility. It can be translated by "can do". - Permission to do something under a certain circumstance. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Can, be able to - 出来る (できる) ができる is used to describe your ability to do something. Like the verb "can", It also expresses the nuance that someone is good at something, especially when used together with adverbs such as よく. The potential form and とこができる are interchangeable. Past experience - たことがある たことがあります is used to indicate a past experience of doing something. It can only be used to talk about things in the far past, not something recent. Therefore the verb is always in the past tense. We cannot use this expression when we have done something repeatedly. We cannot use いつも, たいてい or よく. I think - と思う。 You can use the expression と思う to talk about your own thoughts. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to think 思う (おもう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. To say that you don't think, it's more common to use ないと思います instead of と思いません。 Said that - と言っていました You can use the expression と言っていました to quote what someone else (he, she, they) says or think. It combines the quotation particle と and the verb to say 言う (いう). It's placed after a plain form phrase. と言っていました indicates that you were there and heard the phrase (I heard him saying "..."). と言いました is more appropriate if you weren't there. Looks like - そう そう means "it looks like", "it appears". It's used to show a guess you have about something by looking at it. In case of い-Adjective, you take out the い and add そう. Use the conjucation before そう to tell the difference between "hearsay" or "it looks like". Do things like - たり~たりする To list two or three examples out of a number of actions, use たり~たりする. Contrary to the て-Form, たり implies you did more than the things listed and they weren't in that exact order. Add り after each past tense plain form verb you want to list, then add する or します. The helping verb する at the end of the sentence indicates the tense of the sentence. To decide on - にする This is a slight different meaning from Adjective + する. Here, it is used when the speaker expresses a decision he has made. To become - なる なる is the verb to become. You can use it to express a change. なる follows nouns and both types of adjectives. Adjective + なる express change like Adjective + する. However, なる refers to a change that is not in someone's control. Might, maybe, probably - かもしれません The phrase かもしらない is used to express possibility or uncertainty. You can translate it with "perhaps", or "might be". It's made from 知る (しる) : to know, in the non-past negative form. The more casual form is : かも. It’d be better to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. It’d be better not to - ほうがいい It's a sentence-final expression used to strongly suggests someone to do something. 方 (ほう) means direction, manner, way, method... いい means good. When the advice is in the affirmative ほうがいい generally follows the past form of a verb. When the advice is in the negative ほうがいい generally follows the present form of a verb. You must - なければいけない When you say you must or need to do something. なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. From polite to casual: ければなりません (polite) ければいけません (polite) ければいけない (casual) ければならない (casual) きゃだめだ (rude) きゃ (rude) Has to be done - なくちゃ・なきゃ You use なければいけない to say it's necessary to do something if not … or otherwise ... なければ means if not. いけない means not good or wrong. The casual form often used when speaking is なきゃいけない. たら The た-Form and ら-Form together indicates a condition. If after expressing a condition, we invite somebody to do something together, or we express a request or a hope, and use たら. You can use と instead of たら under a certain condition where something always occurs. と If と comes after a verb or an adjective, it indicates a condition. It translates into as soon as, when, or if. We use と, when we show that under a certain condition, something always occurs as a law of nature, a habit, or an expected result. Verbs take the short form before と. てしまいました You say しまいました after the て-form of a verb to say that you have ended or completed an action. You can no longer redo the action or bring it back to the former state. So it's often use when you failed in doing something or showing regret. Too much - すぎる すぎる is a helping verb that means "too much". You can use it when somehting is beyond normal or proper. すぎる follows the adjective base, replacing the い or な. It conjugates as a regular る-Verb. Imperative form The command form is often used at the time of an emergency, or for signs, such as traffic. Don t - な The negative imperative is an extremely strong imperative, and thus tends to be used mostly by males in very informal speech, or by a superior to a subordinate in a social organization where the hierarchy of power and one’s position in it are clearly established.
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on 1595396373
Nice, this will make it easier for me to remember the grammar.
on 1594928439
Awesome work. Grateful to you for this deck.
on 1592442413
Amazing deck! thank you so much.
on 1590681620
Really good deck. Hope you can update more :)
Comment from author
I will, both in lessons and sources. It just takes time.
I'm adding lessons from NHK right now. It's free: https://www.nhk.or.jp/lesson/english/learn/list/
on 1590159821
Amazing deck!!
on 1589530277
a reason.
on 1588588637
I'm new to learning Japanese and your deck is the best one I could find for leaning basic grammar!

I have one question though. In the dictionary tab, what does KS mean? The reference material often cites KSA and KSB but I just don't know what they mean.
Comment from author
Thank you. I'm glad it helps.

KS means Key Sentence. So KSA and KSB are Key Sentences A and B respectively. The a, b, c... are more examples.