Easy Learning Grammar
Sample (from 15 notes)
|Topic||Direct and indirect objects|
|Content||Direct and indirect objects - Easy Learning Grammar The object of a sentence (if there is one) normally comes after the verb phrase. Whether there is an object or not depends on the meaning of the verb. For example, if you want to talk about what someone is doing, you might say ‘She is writing’ but if you want to talk about the point of the activity, you might say, ‘She is writing a book’.She was riding.She was riding her horse.Erica was writing.Erica was writing a letter.An object that follows a verb like this is called the direct object.Rory found a pen.Our cat doesn’t like milk.Some verbs also have another sort of object, called an indirect object.An indirect object names the person for or to whom something is done. It is usually needed with verbs like give, find and owe. For example, with give, we need to name both the thing that is given and the person it is given to.Mike owes Tom five pounds.Rob gave me a box of chocolates.Susan bought her rabbit some more food.Some verbs must always take a direct object, some never take a direct object; others sometimes take one and sometimes don’t, depending on the meaning. When a verb has an object it is called a transitive verb.Rowan bought a magazine.I don’t like rap music.When it does not have an object it is called an intransitive verb.Lynn fainted.Patrick screamed.Soon, everyone was shouting.Some verbs may be either transitive or intransitive.Ann was reading (a letter).Kim was drawing (a picture).When a verb has both an indirect and a direct object it is called a ditransitive verb.Amy owes Mark ten pounds.Stephen gave me some flowers.Katie bought her hamster a new cage.A direct object is needed where the meaning of the verb requires something to give it a focus. This is why we sometimes say that a direct object ‘complements’ a verb.Some verbs must have an adverbial as well as a direct object, for example to specify a place.He placed the parcel on the chair.She put the umbrella in a corner.|
|Topic||Parts of speech|
|Content||Parts of speech - Easy Learning Grammar Sentences are made up of words. A sentence can be made up of any number of words.He left us.The man in the corner lowered his newspaper.Whenever I see Tammy I worry about how I look.Until tomorrow then.Yes.We can put words together in many ways to make new sentences.I can help you.Can I help you?Grammar describes how we put words together. Each word in a sentence belongs to a particular set or class, depending on how it is used. These classes are called parts of speech.All sentences begin with a capital letter and end in either a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark. When we talk about these marks, e.g. commas, semicolons, full stops, brackets, and so on, we are talking about punctuation.The term clause is used to describe a group of words that contains a verb, the subject of that verb, and, often, some other words such as an object.I live in Sussex.…where I live.Jessica lived in Manchester at first.He was living in Rome that year.…when he had eaten breakfast.A sentence can contain one or more clauses.I can help you if you will let me.Whenever you need to talk to someone, just pop in and see if I’m here.Many sentences are made up of a single clause. Single clause sentences are called simple sentences.He arrived on Friday.My brother loves his skateboard.A clause always contains a verb.runwalkthinkbelieve A sentence, however, does not always have to be a clause. See Sentences and clauses for more about clauses.Certainly not.Until tomorrow then.Yes.Why?A phrase is just a group of words. The term is usually kept for words which go together naturally.the other daymy friend Henryin spite ofover the hillwould have been walkingMany words can refer to one thing only or to more than one. We use the terms singular and plural for this. A more general term is number. Pronouns and nouns can be singular or plural in grammatical number. See Pronouns.When we want to identify the speaker or the person spoken about in grammar, we use first person to mean the speaker, second person to mean the person who is spoken to, and third person to mean the person who is spoken about. For example, we talk about ‘first person plural’ or ‘third person singular’.pronounssingularplural1st person2nd person3rd personIyouhe, she, itweyoutheynounsthe mana girlthe mentwo girls A verb tells us about an action or a state of being. Ordinary verbs are called main verbs.comegothinkwanteconomizebelieve A main verb is sometimes called a ‘doing word’. A special group of verbs are called auxiliary verbs. These can be put together with main verbs to form different tenses.I am thinking.She has seen the film already.I can help you.We might need to.A noun is a word that labels a thing or an idea. Nouns are sometimes called ‘naming words’.tablebookuglinesstimeanimalthing If we do not want to repeat the same noun in a sentence or a paragraph we can replace it with a pronoun. A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun phrase or a noun.Gary saw Sue so he asked her to help him.Ross was hungry so he stopped at a burger bar.An adjective gives more information about a noun. Adjectives help us describe or pick out which particular thing among many is being referred to. Adjectives are sometimes called ‘describing words’.a mana tall mantheir TVtheir new wide-screen TVthe catthe fat black-and-white cat A determiner is used to point more precisely to the person, thing, or idea that is being talked about. Examples of determiners are definite and indefinite articles and possessives.the cata manmy aunttheir TV An adverb gives information about the way that an action is carried out or when and where it takes place.She ran quickly down the path.The children laughed hysterically.He lifted the box carefully.Some adverbs can also be used before adjectives,He was a rather tall man.This cake is quite nice.It was fairly good.It’s a very hot day.or to introduce a sentence. Many adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -ly.Fortunately, the rain stayed away.Honestly, I can’t help it.A preposition is one of a small group of words that can be used with nouns and verbs. Prepositions give information about position or movement.on the bridgeover the rooftopsin the morningat the gates When a preposition is used in front of a noun, the two together do the work of an adverb.He is coming now.He is coming in the morning.I found him there.I found him near the gates.A conjunction joins two or more nouns or clauses to each other. Conjunctions are sometimes called ‘joining words’.I went to the shop and bought some bread.I bought some bread, but I forgot to get the milk.Many words can act as more than one part of speech. It is not unusual for an English word to be a noun in one sentence and a verb in another sentence.Jamal scored several runs.She runs half a mile each morning.I’ve been chosen for the school play.Christopher and Angus play golf together on Fridays.|
|Content||Tense - Easy Learning Grammar We use verbs to talk about actions and states. Verbs tenses allow us to talk about the time when the action or state takes place.All main verbs have two simple tenses, the present simple and the past simple.present simplepast simpleI walkshe singsthey comeyou bringI walkedshe sangthey cameyou brought In these tenses the verb is used on its own without any auxiliary verbs.English verbs also have compound tense forms. In these tenses the main verb is accompanied by one or both of the auxiliary verbs be and have. See Tense and Aspect for more on tenses. AspectThe compound tenses of the verb express two aspects – continuous and perfect.The term aspect is used to talk about continuing actions versus completed actions or states. Simple tenses do not have aspect.continuing actionsI am walkingshe is singingthey are comingyou are bringingI was walkingshe was singingthey were comingyou were bringing completed actionsI have walkedshe has sungthey have comeyou have broughtI had walkedshe had sungthey had comeyou had brought We use these compound verbs when we want to talk about:the continuous nature of an action (using a form of the auxiliary be + -ing). This is called the continuous aspect.I am still studying French.He was living in London all that year.James is helping out with the children this week.Sara and Scott were looking for a new flat at the time.the completion of an action (using a form of the auxiliary have + a past participle, usually -ed). This is called the perfect aspect.I have been a teacher for four years.He had lived in London for a year before coming to Sussex.James has helped out before.Sara and Scott had found their flat by then.The two aspects of the verb can be joined so that we can talk about the duration and the completion of an action in the same verb phrase. See Tense and Aspect for more on tense and aspect.I have been studying French for four years.I had been living in London for four years when I met him.James has been helping us this week. Simple tensesSimple tenses show moments in time, timeless states, and habitual or repetitive actions.It tastes good.Julie keeps a diary.Adrian went home at midnight.She heard a strange noise in the night.Rob usually walks to school.Yesterday he went by car.The present simple and the past simple of regular verbs are formed by using the base form of the verb. See The present simple tense and The past simple tense. Continuous tensesContinuous tenses show duration or continuity.It is raining hard this morning.It was raining when we came out of school yesterday.I’m having dinner. Can I call you back?He was listening to the radio when he heard the news.The present continuous and the past continuous are formed from either the present or the past tense of the verb be + the present participle (or ‘-ing form’) of the main verb. See The present continuous tense and The past continuous tense. Perfect tensesThe present perfect tense shows that an action is completed but that it still has some importance in the present time.Ken has walked all the way from the station. (…and he’s tired.)He has never visited me. (…and I’m feeling neglected.)She has missed the train. (That’s why she’s not here.)The past perfect is used to talk about something that happened in a time before a particular time in the past.He told us that he had tried it before.I had never been climbing before our activity holiday last year.She was late because she had missed her train.The present perfect and the past perfect are formed using either the present or the past tense of the verb have + the past participle of the main verb. See The present perfect tense and The past perfect tense. Perfect continuous tensesPerfect continuous tenses show duration, completion, and importance in the present time.I have been working hard in the garden all day.My mother has been helping me.My sisters have been riding all day.I had been working in Italy that summer.Some of us had been waiting for two hours when the doctor appeared.The present perfect continuous and the past perfect continuous are formed using either the present or past tense of the verb have + the past participle of be + the present participle of the main verb. See The present perfect continuous tense. Other verb formsOther verb combinations are used for positive or negative statements, or to express degrees of time and probability.Do you like espresso coffee?I don’t like fried food.Could I have a coke, please?You will be in Edinburgh within two hours.They will probably meet us at the station.|
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